All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
14 01, 2014

Scientists Get to Grips with Tiktaalik’s Rear End

By | January 14th, 2014|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories|0 Comments

Larger and More Developed Pelvic Girdle in Tiktaalik

A team of scientists based in the United States have published research on the pelvic girdle of a transitional sarcopterygian known as Tiktaalik (Tiktaalik roseae).  The research team have determined that, much to their surprise, the pelvic girdle of this Late Devonian creature, although primitive, is much more robust than expected.  A big, robust pelvis suggests that the hind limbs/fins of this 375 million year old animal were much bigger than previously surmised, this has significant implications for the evolution of tetrapod locomotion.


Fossil material, collected from Canada’s Ellesmere Island in 2004 led to the naming and describing of Tiktaalik in 2006.  The fossil specimens are highly significant as they represent a transitional form from a fully aquatic fish to a terrestrial animal (tetrapod).  At approaching three metres long, Tiktaalik was a sizeable animal.  It had a twenty-centimetre-long skull, which consisted of a long snout and relatively short rear portion of the skull.

The shoulder girdle was not joined directly to the back of the skull as seen in contemporaneous fossil material (Panderichthys et al), giving this animal a neck.  The front limbs were robust and had a wrist-like structure and the finger-like bones contained within the lobe of a fin.  These bones were strong and the wrist-like joint capable of a wide degree of movement suggesting that this half-fish/half amphibian could propel itself along the bottom of a body of water by “walking on its fins”.  Analysis of the first fossils also indicated that Tiktaalik had ribs.  These ribs could have helped to support the animal as it clambered around on land.

Tiktaalik (Late Devonian) A Transitional Fossil

Titaalik Fossil Material (Late Devonian)

Tiktaalik fossil material (Late Devonian)

Picture credit: University of Chicago/Harvard/Academy of Natural Sciences

Tiktaalik Fossils

Intriguingly, although Tiktaalik was named and described nearly eight years ago, the genus was erected based on a study of the front portion of the animal.  The first fossils studied consisted of just the front portions, now the research team behind the first scientific descriptions have examined other material excavated from the same location on Ellesmere Island back in 2004 and these fossils have provided them with evidence as to what the rear end of this iconic animal looked like.

In a paper published in the scientific journal “The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”, the research team that included the late Professor Farish Jenkins (Harvard University), one of the last papers that this esteemed professor of vertebrate palaeontology contributed to, outline evidence to suggest that that Tiktaalik had a large pelvis and strong tail fin.  This suggests that this animal was able to propel itself around using its four proto-limbs.  Such a form of locomotion, often referred to as “four-wheel drive” was thought to have evolved only in later, true tetrapods.

The Scientific Description of Tiktaalik

The authors of this paper, include Dr Neil Shubin (University of Chicago) and Dr Edward Daeschler (Drexel University, Philadelphia), these scientists along with Professor Jenkins, were responsible for the scientific description of Tiktaalik back in 2006.  Only now, once other specimens have been fully prepared can the team describe the rear end of this important transitional vertebrate.  The fossils show that Tiktaalik had a thick, powerful rear fin, but the real surprise came when the scientists took a look at the pelvic area.  The pelvis area, indicated by impressions preserved in the ancient fossilised sediments and several fossilised bones from the hind portions indicate that the rear fins were comparable in size to the front fins.  The shape and size of the hip socket also suggest that the rear fins were capable of a wide range of movement.

The rear fins could have been used to help support the animal’s weight as well as help it to swim through water.  Although, the overall structure of the pelvis is substantially more developed than that seen in other types of Devonian fish, it is still very primitive when compared to the early tetrapods like Acanthostega and Ichthyostega.  The pelvis is still more-fish like, it consists of just one bone, whereas, the pelvis of tetrapods (even ours for example consists of three bones – the ilium, the pubis, and the ischium).

Unfortunately, no evidence of a femur (thigh-bone) has been found but it is very likely that Tiktaalik had a pair of femurs.  Tiktaalik is termed a tetrapodomorph – a transitional form between an aquatic creature and one capable of living on land.

Commenting on this latest research, Dr Daeschler stated:

“The pelvis is as large as the shoulder girdle, and that’s not what we would have expected in this finned stage in the fin-to-limb transition. We would have expected the pelvic fins to be smaller.”

Based on this research, the team conclude that the basic, quadrupedal locomotion once thought to have evolved with the first true tetrapods seems to be present in anatomies of fishes like Tiktaalik.

Dr Daeschler added:

“Tiktaalik probably had the ability to use those fins as props to move along, using them to push along the shallow bottom, to work its way through plants and, who know, maybe it got out of the water briefly if it needed to move over to another watercourse.  But in no way was it specialised for getting out of the water.  It may have had some ability to do that, but everything about its reproduction, its sensory system, its hunting and breathing – all these things tied it to the water.

“Rise of the Animals”

Recently, Sir David Attenborough presented a two-part BBC television programme “Rise of the Animals: Triumph of the Vertebrates”.  This programme documented the evolution of animals with backbones from the earliest forms that swam in Cambrian seas to the evolution of mammals, primates and ultimately ourselves.  Tiktaalik featured prominently in the first part of the documentary, some wonderful animation showed how vertebrate palaeontologists imagined Tiktaalik used its appendages to get itself about.  Interestingly, in the clip the rear limbs are featured, but they do not play any part in the locomotion of the animal.  This new research suggests that Tiktaalik used its four proto-limbs in a quadrupedal motion.

Tiktaalik (T. roseae) A Life Reconstruction

Tiktaalik roseae life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of Tiktaalik roseae.

Picture credit: Kalliopi Monoyios, (University of Chicago).
14 01, 2014

Ancient Neanderthal DNA and US

By | January 14th, 2014|Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on Ancient Neanderthal DNA and US

We May have the Neanderthals to Thank for Some Modern Human Diseases

Some of the diseases that plague our own species (Homo sapiens) may be as a result of our ancestors the Neanderthals (H. neanderthalensis).  A new study undertaken by a joint German and U.S. based team which has been published in the academic journal “Nature” suggests that our inherited genetic make-up has made us more susceptible to some types of disease.  In addition, for those of us who smoke, you can blame the Neanderthals for your inability to give up.  Genes passed down to our species from our very close relatives, may be responsible for our poor record when it comes to giving up addictions.

Ancient Neanderthal DNA

The Neanderthal In All of Us

Model of a Neanderthal man.

A model of a Neanderthal man.

The research team, comprising of scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology (Germany) and the Harvard Medical School (USA) also revealed that other traits such as strong nails, hair colour and the ability to cope better in cold climates might be as a result of our species partial Neanderthal heritage.

For models and figures of ancient hominids: Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models and Figures.

What is Inheritance?

Children inherit their genetic information from their parents (half from the mother, half from the father).  Genetic information is information which is inherited from the parents of organisms by the offspring.  Certain characteristics of all organisms are determined by genetic information and this research team has identified a number of traits that has been passed onto our own species by Homo neanderthalensis or our shared common ancestor.

What Proportion of our Genetic Make Up is Neanderthal?

In those members of the human population who are described as non-African in origin, (particularly non-sub-Saharan African), there is a small amount of Neanderthal DNA present in their genome.  A genome is an organisms complete set of genes, all the information and instructions required to build and maintain that organism.  The level of identifiable and traceable Neanderthal DNA varies from approximately 2% to around 4%, a small amount, but this is not surprising since it is believed that the Neanderthals and our species common ancestor lived around 500,000 years ago.  The amount of DNA we share with Neanderthals is still higher than expected given the estimated length of time since our common ancestor lived.  Two main theories have been proposed:

  • Firstly, the dating of the split from a common ancestor may be earlier than previously thought, around 350,000 years ago for example
  • Or, that cross-breeding between these two very closely related species occurred resulting in the higher level of Neanderthal inherited DNA

To read a more detailed article about this research: Study Suggests That Some Human Diseases Linked to Inherited Neanderthal DNA.

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