All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
27 03, 2023

Searching for Sunken Settlements

By | March 27th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos, Uncategorized|0 Comments

Plans are in place for an expedition to explore the seabed of the Adriatic for signs of early human settlement. Dr Simon Fitch, a geo-archaeologist at the University of Bradford is to embark on a mission to map submerged ice age landscapes and sunken settlements in what has been described as “a first of its kind”, scientific enquiry.

At the end of the month (March 2023), Dr Fitch will travel to Split in Croatia to begin a five-day survey of the Adriatic seabed using state-of-the-art underwater 3-D seismic sensors.

Dr Simon Fitch (University of Bradford).
Dr Simon Fitch from the University of Bradford. Picture credit: University of Bradford/Simon Fitch.

Mapping Parts of the Adriatic and the North Sea

This expedition is the first of several that are being planned. Over the next five years, the researchers hope to map parts of the Adriatic and the North Sea. The North Sea being an area of particular interest to University of Bradford archaeologists as they have previously worked extensively on Doggerland, the huge tract of land that once linked Britain to continental Europe.

To read a recent article about research from the University of Bradford examining the impact of ancient Tsunamis on Doggerland settlements: Ancient Tsunamis Once Devastated Doggerland.

Between 24,000 and 10,000 years ago, global sea levels were around a hundred metres lower than they are today. This latest expedition is part of a long-term project to explore the archaeology of submerged human settlements.

The Life on the Edge Project

The Life on the Edge project is part of a UKRI future leaders fellowship for Dr Fitch, which last year attracted just over £1m in funding from UKRI, as well as £400,000 in-kind ship time from VLIZ (Flanders Marine Institute), and a PhD studentship from the University.

The University of Bradford’s Faculty of Life Sciences now has the largest submerged landscapes research group in the world and is one of the few places specialising in this exciting area of academic research.

A three-dimensional image mapping the coastline of Croatia around 14,000 years ago.
3-D image of the coastline of Croatia with the 14000-year-old coastline outlined in red. Picture credit: University of Bradford/Simon Fitch.

Commenting on the significance of the study, Dr Fitch stated:

“This is the first time anyone is going more than 500 metres from the coastline in the Adriatic to map the seabed. We know humans once lived on the land down there because trawlers regularly dredge up artefacts. This is about finding out who we are as a species and where we come from”.

An Incomplete Picture of Our History

Dr Fitch went onto explain that we have an incomplete picture of our own history. During the Late Palaeolithic (24,000 to 10,000 years ago), our planet was in the grip of an Ice Age and during this time we experienced the last “glacial maximum”, when sea levels were much lower than today, due to the amount of water stored in the ice caps and glaciers. More land around coasts would have been exposed and it is very likely that Stone Age people lived in these areas.

Dr Fitch added:

“We know most human populations like to live on the coastline, so it’s likely there were settlements on what is now the seabed. Our aim is to find evidence of those settlements and then recover the archaeology.”

Helping Renewable Energy Companies

Archaeologists from Bradford University along with collaborators from the University of Split and Flanders Marine institute (VLIZ), are working with commercial companies, who are already mapping the seafloor as they prepare to construct wind farms.

World map showing sea levels around 22,000 years ago.
World map showing sea levels as they were during last glacial maximum, circa 22,000 years ago with yellow dots to show proposed wind farm activity. Picture credit: University of Bradford/Simon Fitch.

Powerful supercomputers installed at the University of Bradford are being used to process the huge volumes of data the expeditions will produce and The Life on the Edge Project has already attracted attention from other archaeologists based overseas. Dr Jessica Cook Hale (University of Georgia, USA), is to join the project.

The Search for Sunken Settlements

The academic is an experienced archaeologist with over two decades of research and field work behind her, including having dived underwater prehistoric sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic coast.

Exploring an underwater "midden heap".
Dr Jessica Cook Hale, (University of Georgia), who has joined the Life on the Edge project, diving a 5,000-year-old “midden heap” in the Econfina Channel site off the coast of Florida in August of 2015. Picture credit: Jessica Cook Hale.

Dr Cook Hale commented that she was excited to be joining this project and stated:

“Bradford is one of the few places doing this. I looked at this project from afar and wanted to be a part of it, so I’m thrilled to be joining the team. Carrying out geo-archaeology on submerged landscapes is really the only way to approach the problem of finding out about our prehistoric ancestors. As archaeologists, we’re naturally curious, we always want to ask, what came before?”

Training the Next Generation of Geo-archaeologists

One of the aims of the project team is to help recruit and train the next generation of geo-archaeologists.

The Life on the Edge project is an appropriate moniker, the team will be using cutting-edge mapping and computer technology and they will be exploring places that no archaeologists have explored before.

We wish the team every success with this intriguing venture.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Bradford in the compilation of this article.

22 03, 2023

Papo Mosasaurus Model

By | March 22nd, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

The new for 2023 Papo Mosasaurus model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur. This marine reptile figure is the first new Papo prehistoric animal model to be introduced this year (2023). The model has an articulated lower jaw. It displays some amazing details such as pterygoid teeth located in the roof of the cavernous mouth.

Papo Mosasaurus model
The new for 2023 Papo Mosasaurus model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur. The Papo Mosasaurus figure has an articulated jaw. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

An Articulated Lower Jaw and Pterygoid Teeth

The Papo Mosasaurus marine reptile model measures around 25.5 cm (10 inches) in length and it has an articulated lower jaw. The impressively painted mouth reveals two rows of pterygoid teeth located towards the back of the mouth. These teeth, known in living members of the Squamata such as snakes, helped to grip prey and enabled these large predators to swallow their victims whole.

Pterygoid teeth of the Papo Mosasaurus model.
The Papo Mosasaurus figure has pterygoid teeth located in the roof of the mouth. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Mosasaurus Model

This new marine reptile figure has been given an asymmetrical tail fin, referred to as a hypocercal tail. One lobe, the lower lobe of the tail, is much larger than the upper lobe. The model has also been given powerful front flippers and a dorsal fin.

There are examples of soft tissue preservation in mosasaur specimens, most notably in a specimen reported in the journal “Nature Communications” by Lindgren et al (2013). A mosasaur fossil specimen from the Upper Cretaceous sediments of central Jordan provided evidence of the shape of the tail and the flippers as soft tissue impressions were preserved.

Team members at Everything Dinosaur are not aware of any direct fossil evidence to indicate that these reptiles had dorsal fins.

Papo Mosasaurus model.
The Papo Mosasaurus was due to come out at the end of 2022, it was expected quarter 1 of 2023 and it is now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

An Intriguing Marine Reptile Figure

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“The new Papo Mosasaurus is an intriguing marine reptile figure. A second marine reptile model from Papo is due out later this year. It is a Kronosaurus and we look forward to comparing the two models.”

To view the range of Papo models available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

20 03, 2023

Sinosauropteryx Wedding Guests

By | March 20th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

In January, Everything Dinosaur received an order for two PNSO Sinosauropteryx models. These are popular prehistoric animal figures but we did contact Claire, the customer, just to check that they had not purchased an additional figure in error. Claire replied to our email and reassured us stating:

“Thank you for emailing! No, the purchase of a second PNSO Sinosauropteryx figure was not a mistake. My fiancé and I are planning to use them as cake toppers for our wedding.”

Intrigued, we asked Claire would it be possible for her to send us a picture of her dinosaur themed wedding cake.

Sure, enough over the weekend we were sent a photograph of the fabulous cake.

Sinosauropteryx wedding guests.
PNSO Sinosauropteryx models used as cake toppers for a spectacular dinosaur themed wedding cake. Picture credit: Claire.

Picture credit: Claire

PNSO Sinosauropteryx Wedding Guests

What a spectacular wedding cake. Even the two PNSO Sinosauropteryx models have been dressed up for the occasion. The cake looks beautiful, and we love the little flourishes such as the ammonite fossils on the side and the cascading waterfall made from blue icing.

Cutting the dinosaur themed wedding cake.
Claire and her husband Bradley cutting the dinosaur themed wedding cake. Picture credit Claire.

Picture credit: Claire

We at Everything Dinosaur would like congratulate the happy couple. We wish Claire and Bradley every success and happiness as they build their new lives together.

To view the Sinosauropteryx figures that featured on the wedding cake and the rest of the PNSO prehistoric animal replicas: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

19 03, 2023

Happy Mother’s Day

By | March 19th, 2023|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Today, it is Mothering Sunday here in the UK. The fourth Sunday in Lent following the Christian calendar, a day dedicated to celebrating motherhood. Mother’s Day is celebrated on different days in many parts of the world, most commonly in the Northern Hemisphere spring months of March through to May.


As we consider mums, maternal bonds and the contribution of mothers to society, our thoughts turn to the ornithischian dinosaur Maiasaura. Named and described in 1979 (Horner and Makela), this hadrosaurid dinosaur (Maiasaura peeblesorum) is synonymous with motherhood and maternal behaviours.

Dinosaurs and spaceflight. Maiasaura fossils have been into space. Happy Mother's Day.
“Good Mother Lizard” Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

The first fossils of this dinosaur were discovered in the Badlands of Montana (USA), by a team of American scientists led by palaeontologist Jack Horner. The site the team uncovered consisted of a number of dinosaur nests, eggs, baby Maiasaura, juveniles and adults. The fossil site was renamed “Egg Mountain” and represents the fossilised remains of a Maiasaura colonial nesting area.

Happy Mother’s Day

Studies of Maiasaura provided unequivocal proof that dinosaurs raised their young and fed them at the nest (altricial behaviour). Maiasaura translates from the Greek meaning “Good Mother Lizard”, an appropriate epithet for a dinosaur that demonstrated that these reptiles, looked after their offspring.

The extensive fossil remains of this hadrosaur have enabled palaeontologists to undertake large scale studies of dinosaur ontogeny (growth rate studies). In addition, scientists have been able to determine the mortality rate of Maiasaura based on the Montana “Egg Mountain” fossils. A study of fifty Maiasaura peeblesorum tibia revealed that 90% of all Maiasaura hatchlings died within their first twelve months. If the dinosaurs survived into their second year, the mortality rate would fall to around 13%.

To view models and figures of ornithischian dinosaurs: Safari Ltd – Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models.

Maiasaura remains one of our favourite dinosaurs. Happy Mother’s Day from Everything Dinosaur.

18 03, 2023

Othniel Charles Marsh 1831 – 1899

By | March 18th, 2023|Dinosaur Fans, Famous Figures, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Today, March 18th, we at Everything Dinosaur commemorate the life of the American palaeontologist Othniel Charles Marsh. The eminent professor and president of the prestigious National Academy of Sciences passed away on this day in 1899.

Othniel Charles Marsh

Regarded as one of the great pioneers of American palaeontology he described more than a dozen new genera of dinosaurs, based on fossils excavated from the Western United States. He was responsible for naming and scientifically describing many of the most famous of all the Dinosauria. Brontosaurus, Apatosaurus, Triceratops and Stegosaurus were all named by Marsh.

Natural History Museum (London) - Sophie the Stegosaurus
A view of the anterior of “Sophie” the Stegosaurus stenops specimen on display at the London Natural History Museum. Othniel Charles Marsh named and described the first Stegosaurus species in 1877. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Theropod Dinosaurs, Prehistoric Birds and Pterosaurs

Marsh also named and described the theropod dinosaur Allosaurus (1878), named and described toothed-birds, early horses and studied the first pterosaur fossils known from the USA.

For models and replicas of North American dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures: Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models and Figures.

For all his academic and scientific achievements, perhaps O. C. Marsh is best remembered for his bitter rivalry with his fellow American scientist Edward Drinker Cope. A rivalry that became known as the “Bone Wars”.

15 03, 2023

A Trio of Colourful Sauropods

By | March 15th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Our thanks to young dinosaur fan Esmee who sent into Everything Dinosaur a drawing which featured a trio of colourful sauropods. Team members at Everything Dinosaur get sent lots of drawings of prehistoric animals and we enjoy looking at them and some even get posted up onto our warehouse notice boards.

A trio of colourful sauropods.
A trio of very colourful sauropod dinosaurs drawn by young dinosaur fan Esmee. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Esmee/Everything Dinosaur

Colourful Sauropods

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur thanked Esmee for sending in her drawing and added:

“Whilst we can’t be certain what colour sauropod dinosaurs were, it is thought they had colour vision. So, why not be brightly coloured with oranges, reds and blues. After all, if you are going to be longer than a bus you might as well stand out in terms of your colouration too. Our thanks to Esmee for creating such colourful dinosaurs.”

For dinosaur themed drawing materials and other craft related gifts: Dinosaur Themed Toys and Gifts.

13 03, 2023

Straight-shelled Nautiloid

By | March 13th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos, Teaching|0 Comments

The Silurian is a relatively short geological time period when compared to the other periods outlined in the geological time scale. The Silurian lasted around twenty-five million years (444 million years ago to approximately 419 million years ago). Although it was brief, in relative terms, during the Silurian the first land plants evolved and many invertebrate forms began to make the transition to a terrestrial habit. Life in the seas still dominated the Earth’s biota. One of the apex, marine predators was the straight-shelled nautiloid. Some of these orthocones evolved into giants.

straight-shelled nautiloid.
Everything Dinosaur and the straight-shelled nautiloid Orthoceras which was introduced into the CollectA range in 2020. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Straight-shelled Nautiloid

During the Silurian most of the nautiloid cephalopods had straight or slightly curved shells. The planispiral forms had yet to become common. The last straight-shelled forms (Orthocerida), probably died out during the Mesozoic. Most straight-shelled nautiloids became extinct at the end of the Triassic, but one fossil specimen collected in the Caucasus (Zhuravlevia insperata), indicates that one species persisted into the Early Cretaceous.

Orthocone/Orthoceras scale drawing.
An early scale drawing design for the Orthoceras/Orthocone fact sheet. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Zhuravlevia insperata

Described in 1994 by Larisa Doguzhaeva of the Swedish Museum of Natural History, based on a fragmentary orthocerid fossil, Zhuravlevia insperata is the geologically youngest straight-shelled orthocone known to science. The tiny fossil, just 1.3 cm long, with four chambers preserved, was found when Aptian-aged concretions from the Hokodz River Basin in the north-western Caucasus (Russia), were being split.

The orthocone fragment would be around 120 million years old.

CollectA introduced an Orthocone replica in 2020. The figure was added to the Age of Dinosaurs Popular range.

To view the invertebrate figures in the CollectA not-to-scale range including (whilst stocks last), Orthoceras: CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Range.

12 03, 2023

Sixth Batch of Frogspawn

By | March 12th, 2023|Animal News Stories, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Photos, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur team members have recorded the sixth batch of frogspawn in the office pond. The recent cold snap has ended and the wetter and milder weather may have encouraged more frogs to spawn. A sixth batch of frogspawn was observed early this morning. We suspect that it had been laid last night or in the early hours of the morning.

Sixth Batch of Frogspawn
The sixth batch of frogspawn spotted in the office pond on March 12th 2023. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Common Frogs

At least one Common frog (Rana temporaria) is still in the pond. The frog has a bright white throat patch so, we suspect that this is a male. Team members will continue to monitor the pond to see if more frogspawn is laid. Frog numbers have declined in recent years. Five years ago, as many as a dozen frogs could be seen in the pond during the spawning season. Hopefully, our small pond will continue to support a frog population, attract other wildlife and provide a bathing area for nesting birds.

Visit Everything Dinosaur’s website: Dinosaur Models, Prehistoric Plus and Dinosaur Toys.

11 03, 2023

Giraffatitan vs Brachiosaurus

By | March 11th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

The macronarian clade of sauropods includes some of the largest dinosaurs to be scientifically described. However, many of these super-sized sauropods are known from scrappy and fragmentary remains. Dinosaurs with a high profile with the public are often very poorly understood by palaeontologists. Team members at Everything Dinosaur, take a look at one such example concerning the Macronaria. Time to outline the differences between Brachiosaurus and the Giraffatitan genus. Giraffatitan vs Brachiosaurus – a tale of the tape.

Giraffatitan vs Brachiosaurus

The Brachiosaurus genus was erected by Elmer Riggs (1903) following a study of two partial sauropod skeletons found in the Grand River Valley of Colorado. Riggs named this newly discovered dinosaur Brachiosaurus altithorax, it remains the type species.

Wild Safari Brachosaurus dinosaur model.
The Wild Safari Brachiosaurus dinosaur model (lateral view). The official model image from 2013.

The picture above shows a Brachiosaurus model from an American manufacturer. To view this range of models and figures: Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models and Replicas.


In the early 20th century, extensive excavations in German East Africa (Tanzania), resulted in the collection of a large amount of brachiosaurid and other dinosaur fossil material. The German palaeontologist Werner Janensch, in 1914, compared the African fossils with Brachiosaurus fossil remains from North America and concluded that the African material represented the same genus. Janensch named two further species of Brachiosaurus – Brachiosaurus brancai and Brachiosaurus fraasi.

A Dinosaur Subgenus

The American palaeontologist Gregory S. Paul reconstructed the skeleton of Brachiosaurus brancai and highlighted several autapomorphies between these African fossils and B. altithorax. He still considered the Tanzanian material to represent Brachiosaurus but concluded that these fossils should be placed in a subgenus and proposed Brachiosaurus (Giraffatitan) brancai whilst designating the U. S. fossil material as Brachiosaurus (Brachiosaurus) altithorax.

Further revisions and studies from other scientists led to the realisation that the African brachiosaurid was generally more gracile with a different body shape when compared to Brachiosaurus altithorax. The tail of the African dinosaur was shorter and not as tall. In addition, Brachiosaurus altithorax had a dorsal vertebrae series that was 23% bigger than that associated with the Tanzanian material.

Over the last fifteen years or so, the genus Giraffatitan and the species G. brancai became more accepted by academics with most palaeontologists regarding the African fossils as distinct but representing a dinosaur that was closely related to the sauropod represented by the American material.

W-Dragon Giraffatitan Compared to a Papo standing T. rex dinosaur model
W-Dragon Giraffatitan Compared to a Papo standing T. rex dinosaur model. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view replicas of sauropods and other prehistoric creatures: Mojo Fun Prehistoric and Extinct Replicas.

10 03, 2023

CollectA Trilobite Model

By | March 10th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur team members received a request from a prehistoric animal model collector for more information about the invertebrate replicas included within the CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular model range. As always we were happy to oblige and emailed over further information, including some pictures of the CollectA trilobite model.

CollectA Redlichia rex trilobite. "First Life"
CollectA Redlichia rex trilobite model.

CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Models

Over recent years, the design team at CollectA have added several replicas of extinct, iconic prehistoric invertebrates to their Age of Dinosaurs Popular range. For example, in 2020 CollectA added a trilobite replica to their product portfolio, a replica of the large, predatory trilobite called Redlichia rex.

CollectA trilobite model.
Everything Dinosaur team members have prepared some images of CollectA invertebrate models including the CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular trilobite model (Redlichia rex). Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

CollectA Trilobite Model

Team members were happy to send over the additional information as requested. We are always pleased to hear from fellow model and figure collectors.

To view the CollectA range of not-to-scale prehistoric animal figures: CollectA Prehistoric Life/Age of Dinosaurs Models.

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