All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
31 03, 2023

Beasts of the Mesozoic in the Garden

By | March 31st, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Our thanks to dinosaur fan and model collector Caldey who sent into Everything Dinosaur some pictures of her latest Beasts of the Mesozoic model acquisitions. The young artist and dinosaur fan had taken some ceratopsians into the garden and taking advantage of the sunny weather took some photographs of the articulated figures.

Beasts of the Mesozoic Diabloceratops diorama.
The adult Diabloceratops articulated figure with a trio of juvenile Diabloceratops. Picture credit: Caldey.

Picture credit: Caldey

Beasts of the Mesozoic

The Beasts of the Mesozoic range originally consisted of articulated “raptor” figures. It has been expanded to included horned dinosaurs such as the splendid Diabloceratops figure. A trio of juvenile Diabloceratops is a very recent addition to this popular series. These youngsters scale up well when compared to the adult Diabloceratops figure.

To view the range of Beasts of the Mesozoic figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Beasts of the Mesozoic Articulated Figures.

Beasts of the Mesozoic "Old Buck" Styracosaurus
The Beasts of the Mesozoic Styracosaurus “Old Buck” takes a wander around the garden. Picture credit: Caldey.

Picture credit: Caldey

“Old Buck” Styracosaurus

The Beasts of the Mesozoic “Old Buck” Styracosaurus looks very much at home in the garden. It seems to be enjoying the sunny weather. The photographer has taken care to find suitable places on the rockery to photograph the figures. The sunlight certainly highlights the vivid stripes on the horns and back of the Styracosaurus.

On thanks to Caldey for sending in these photos of the latest editions to her model collection.

30 03, 2023

New Study Suggests Tyrannosaurus rex Had Lips

By | March 30th, 2023|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Large, predatory theropod dinosaurs are often portrayed as fierce-looking monsters, with huge and highly visible teeth. These teeth are visible over the jaw line when the meat-eating dinosaur’s mouth is closed. This is reminiscent of the appearance of modern crocodilians, which after all, are closely related to fellow archosaurs such as the theropod members of the Dinosauria. However, a new study suggests predatory dinosaurs had scaly, lizard-like lips. Even Tyrannosaurus rex had lips according to a new paper published in the academic journal Science.

Tyrannosaurus rex had lips.
A juvenile Edmontosaurus disappears into the enormous, lipped mouth of Tyrannosaurus. Picture credit: Mark Witton.

Tyrannosaurus rex Had Lips

The researchers including Dr Mark Witton (University of Portsmouth) and the study lead author Assistant Professor Thomas M. Cullen (Auburn University, Alabama) suggest that carnivores such as Tyrannosaurus rex did not have permanently exposed teeth. Films such as “Jurassic Park”, many palaeoartists and numerous model manufacturers have got it wrong. Instead, these dinosaurs had scaly lips, covering and sealing their mouths.

The debate as to whether theropod dinosaurs such as Giganotosaurus, Velociraptor, T. rex and Allosaurus had lips has gone on for some time. Did these dinosaurs have perpetually visible upper teeth that hung over their lower jaws and were therefore exposed and on view even with the jaw closed? The researchers suggest that dinosaurs such as Tyrannosaurus rex did not have a smile like a crocodile. Theropods possessed lips similar to those of lizards and the ancient reptile Tuatara, the only extant member of the Rhynchocephalia.

Detailed Study

In the most detailed study concerning the presence or otherwise of extraoral tissue in the Theropoda conducted to date, the researchers examined the tooth structure, wear patterns and jaw morphology of lipped and lipless reptile groups and found that theropod mouth anatomy and functionality resembles that of lizards more than the mouths of crocodilians.

Tyrannosaurus rex skull and head reconstructions.
T. rex skull and head reconstructions. Picture credit: Mark Witton.

These lips were probably not muscular, like those of mammals. Most reptile lips cover their teeth but cannot be moved independently, a reptile can’t curl its lips back and snarl like a dog. They could not make the sort of movements that we might associate with our faces or that of other mammals.

Derek Larson, Collections Manager and Researcher in Palaeontology at the Royal BC Museum in Canada and a co-author of the study stated:

“Palaeontologists often like to compare extinct animals to their closest living relatives, but in the case of dinosaurs, their closest relatives have been evolutionarily distinct for hundreds of millions of years and today are incredibly specialised.”

The research team concluded that theropod teeth were extremely similar to the teeth of monitor lizards (varanids). The teeth are thought to have functioned in the same way, so perhaps monitor lizards such as the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) can be favourably compared to extinct animals such as theropod dinosaurs, even though the Varanidae as members of the Squamata, are only very distantly related to the Dinosauria.

Upending Popular Theropod Depictions

Co-author Dr Mark Witton (University of Portsmouth) explained:

“Dinosaur artists have gone back and forth on lips since we started restoring dinosaurs during the 19th century, but lipless dinosaurs became more prominent in the 1980s and 1990s. They were then deeply rooted in popular culture through films and documentaries — Jurassic Park and its sequels, Walking with Dinosaurs and so on. Curiously, there was never a dedicated study or discovery instigating this change and, to a large extent, it probably reflected preference for a new, ferocious-looking aesthetic rather than a shift in scientific thinking. We’re upending this popular depiction by covering their teeth with lizard-like lips. This means a lot of our favourite dinosaur depictions are incorrect, including the iconic Jurassic Park T. rex.”

The Implications of “Tyrannosaurus rex Had Lips”

The results of the study, found that tooth wear in lipless animals was markedly different from that seen in carnivorous dinosaurs and that dinosaur teeth were no larger, relative to skull size, than those of modern lizards, implying they were not too big to cover with lips.

Furthermore, the distribution of small holes around the jaws, which supply nerves and blood to the gums and tissues around the mouth, were more lizard-like in dinosaurs than crocodile-like. In addition, modelling mouth closure of lipless theropod jaws showed that the lower jaw either had to crush jaw-supporting bones or disarticulate the jaw joint to seal the mouth.

Tyrannosaurus rex bellowing with its mouth shut, like a vocalising alligator.
Tyrannosaurus rex bellowing with its mouth shut, like a vocalising alligator. Picture credit: Mark Witton

Kirstin Brink (Assistant Professor of Palaeontology at the University of Manitoba, Canada) and fellow co-author of the scientific paper commented:

“As any dentist will tell you, saliva is important for maintaining the health of your teeth. Teeth that are not covered by lips risk drying out and can be subject to more damage during feeding or fighting, as we see in crocodiles, but not in dinosaurs.”

Assistant Professor Brink added:

“Dinosaur teeth have very thin enamel and mammal teeth have thick enamel (with some exceptions). Crocodile enamel is a bit thicker than dinosaur enamel, but not as thick as mammalian enamel. There are some mammal groups that do have exposed enamel, but their enamel is modified to withstand exposure.”

Theropod Teeth are Not Oversized

Previously, it had been suggested that the teeth of predatory dinosaurs were just too big to be covered by lips. This study challenges that view and suggests that theropod teeth were not atypically large. Even the huge, banana-shaped teeth of tyrannosaurs are proportionally similar in size to living predatory lizards when the actual skull size is considered. Therefore, the researchers reject the hypothesis that theropod teeth were too large to be covered by lips.

Model makers and figure manufacturers have created figures that reflect the current scientific debate about the presence or otherwise of lips in theropod dinosaurs. For example, Rebor recently introduced two new Tyrannosaurus rex figures “Kiss” being a lipped model, whereas the counterpart figure “Tusk” was lipless.

Rebor "Kiss" and Rebor "Tusk" T. rex figures.
Some model manufacturers have reflected the current scientific debate by producing replicas with lips as well as lipless forms such as the recent Rebor “Kiss” and “Tusk” figures.

To view the range of Rebor figures and replicas in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Models and Figures.

Important Implications with Regards to Reconstructing Theropod Dinosaurs

This new study provides a new perspective on the “lips” versus “lipless” debate. It provides new insights into how scientists, artists and model makers reconstruct the soft tissues of dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals. This research provides information on how theropod dinosaurs fed, how they maintained their dental health as well as broader issues such as dinosaur ecology and evolution.

Dr Witton summarised the study stating:

“Some take the view that we’re clueless about the appearance of dinosaurs beyond basic features like the number of fingers and toes. But our study, and others like it, show that we have an increasingly good handle on many aspects of dinosaur appearance. Far from being clueless, we’re now at a point where we can say ‘oh, that doesn’t have lips? Or a certain type of scale or feather?’ Then that’s as realistic a depiction of that species as a tiger without stripes.”

The research team stress that their study does not say that no extinct animals had exposed teeth — some, like sabre-toothed carnivorous mammals, or marine reptiles and flying reptiles with extremely long, interlocking teeth, almost certainly did.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Theropod dinosaur facial reconstruction and the importance of soft tissues in paleobiology” by Thomas M. Cullen, Derek W. Larson, Mark P. Witton, Diane Scott, Tea Maho, Kirstin S. Brink, David C. Evans and Robert Reisz published in the journal Science.

29 03, 2023

Beautiful Bullyland Ammonite Model Retired

By | March 29th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

The popular Bullyland ammonite model is to be retired according to sources at the German model and figure manufacturing company. Everything Dinosaur team members made enquiries with Bullyland in Germany earlier in the week and it has been confirmed that the ammonite model is going out of production.

The Bullyland ammonite model next to a polished section of an ammonite fossil.
The Bullyland ammonite model is often used in museum displays to depict the living animal next to fossil material. This Bullyland model is being retired and there are no plans in place to make any more replicas. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Bullyland Ammonite Model

The Bullyland ammonite model was included in the company’s latest product catalogue, but according to Everything Dinosaur’s sources the ammonite figure is to be withdrawn. Over the last few years, the number of models made by Bullyland has been reduced. The company has been focusing on producing figures under licence for organisations such as Disney and Pixar.

Bullyland ammonite model.
The Bullyland replica ammonite model.

To view the range of Bullyland prehistoric animal figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Bullyland Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Over the last 2-3 years the Bullyland range of prehistoric animals has been significantly reduced. A new Ichthyosaurus model was due to go into production in 2020, but this replica seems to have been postponed, possibly permanently.”

The spokesperson went onto state:

“As for the Bullyland ammonite model, its partner product, a belemnite, was retired about a decade ago. Whilst we will be sorry to see this figure go, there are now a number of ammonite and other prehistoric invertebrate models on the market, most notably within the CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular range.”

CollectA Arthropods and Cephalopods new for 2020.
New CollectA arthropods and cephalopods.

The picture (above) shows some of the cephalopod and arthropod figures within the CollectA range. In 2022, the range was extended with the addition of the nautiloid Cooperoceras and this year, a model of Anomalocaris is being added.

To view the range of CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular figures available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Figures.

28 03, 2023

Everything Dinosaur Genuine Reviews

By | March 28th, 2023|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

All the reviews posted on the Everything Dinosaur website are genuine. They have come from real people who are customers. Genuine reviews are the only type of review that team members are interested in and willing to post up onto our website for visitors to read.

We have three main sources of review. Firstly, we receive reviews from Feefo, the independent customer ratings company. All the feedback, comments and reviews we receive are checked by Feefo to ensure that they come from real customers. In addition, we receive reviews on products and our customer service from shoppers. Purchasers send us product reviews and feedback, by visiting the review section on product pages and subsequently leaving a comment.

Thirdly, we receive Google reviews. These are made visible on the Google platform. Each review is from a real person, a customer of Everything Dinosaur. We also receive ratings on the Everything Dinosaur Facebook page.

Platinum Trusted Service Award
Everything Dinosaur has won the prestigious Feefo Platinum Trusted Service award every year that it has been offered. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

For example, you can find the independent Feefo reviews about Everything Dinosaur here: Feefo Customer Reviews About Everything Dinosaur.

Fake Reviews

Sadly, there are many companies that do not take such an ethical approach. Testimonials and feedback do influence purchase behaviour. A person is more likely to buy a product or place an order with a website, if they see positive reviews.

There are individuals and companies quite prepared to provide fake reviews.

Everything Dinosaur received the following email:


Do you need stick and non drop GMBs, Trustpilot, sitejabber, facebook, resellerratings reviews?

We use real mobile IPs.
Each review is made from a different IP address.
We don’t use proxies,VPN.

All reviews are posted from aged and phone verified Google accounts.
All reviews are posted based on the geo location of your business.

Looking for a positive response,

Thank You!”

Please Note

This is a genuine email, offering Everything Dinosaur reviews. We have not changed any of the grammar or corrected the spelling in this email.

Our Response

An email such as this, is deleted immediately. We have always been honest with our customers. Every review posted on our website, is absolutely genuine. Everything Dinosaur will never knowingly post up a fake review.

As artificial intelligence (AI) continues to develop, we expect the profusion of fake reviews to grow. They will become increasingly difficult to spot. At Everything Dinosaur, we remain committed to providing our customers and site visitors with genuine comments and feedback from customers.

Genuine Reviews

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Everything Dinosaur currently has over 360 5-star Feefo reviews. Our company has received over 250 5-star Google reviews. In addition, we have thousands of customer comments, product reviews and feedback posted up on our own website. Every single one of these is genuine. We would never knowingly post up fake reviews.”

The spokesperson explained that they were extremely grateful for all the reviews, comments and feedback the company received. Team members appreciated customers taking the time to provide feedback and reviews.

Visit Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning and genuine website: Visit Everything Dinosaur.

27 03, 2023

Scientists Searching for Sunken Settlements

By | March 27th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Plans are in place for an expedition to explore the seabed of the Adriatic for signs of early human settlement. Dr Simon Fitch, a geo-archaeologist at the University of Bradford is to embark on a mission to map submerged ice age landscapes and sunken settlements in what has been described as “a first of its kind”, scientific enquiry.

At the end of the month (March 2023), Dr Fitch will travel to Split in Croatia to begin a five-day survey of the Adriatic seabed using state-of-the-art underwater 3-D seismic sensors.

Dr Simon Fitch (University of Bradford).
Dr Simon Fitch from the University of Bradford. Picture credit: University of Bradford/Simon Fitch.

Mapping Parts of the Adriatic and the North Sea

This expedition is the first of several that are being planned. Over the next five years, the researchers hope to map parts of the Adriatic and the North Sea. The North Sea being an area of particular interest to University of Bradford archaeologists as they have previously worked extensively on Doggerland, the huge tract of land that once linked Britain to continental Europe.

To read a recent article about research from the University of Bradford examining the impact of ancient Tsunamis on Doggerland settlements: Ancient Tsunamis Once Devastated Doggerland.

Between 24,000 and 10,000 years ago, global sea levels were around a hundred metres lower than they are today. This latest expedition is part of a long-term project to explore the archaeology of submerged human settlements.

The Life on the Edge Project

The Life on the Edge project is part of a UKRI future leaders fellowship for Dr Fitch, which last year attracted just over £1m in funding from UKRI, as well as £400,000 in-kind ship time from VLIZ (Flanders Marine Institute), and a PhD studentship from the University.

The University of Bradford’s Faculty of Life Sciences now has the largest submerged landscapes research group in the world and is one of the few places specialising in this exciting area of academic research.

A three-dimensional image mapping the coastline of Croatia around 14,000 years ago.
3-D image of the coastline of Croatia with the 14000-year-old coastline outlined in red. Picture credit: University of Bradford/Simon Fitch.

Commenting on the significance of the study, Dr Fitch stated:

“This is the first time anyone is going more than 500 metres from the coastline in the Adriatic to map the seabed. We know humans once lived on the land down there because trawlers regularly dredge up artefacts. This is about finding out who we are as a species and where we come from”.

An Incomplete Picture of Our History

Dr Fitch went onto explain that we have an incomplete picture of our own history. During the Late Palaeolithic (24,000 to 10,000 years ago), our planet was in the grip of an Ice Age and during this time we experienced the last “glacial maximum”, when sea levels were much lower than today, due to the amount of water stored in the ice caps and glaciers. More land around coasts would have been exposed and it is very likely that Stone Age people lived in these areas.

Dr Fitch added:

“We know most human populations like to live on the coastline, so it’s likely there were settlements on what is now the seabed. Our aim is to find evidence of those settlements and then recover the archaeology.”

Helping Renewable Energy Companies

Archaeologists from Bradford University along with collaborators from the University of Split and Flanders Marine institute (VLIZ), are working with commercial companies, who are already mapping the seafloor as they prepare to construct wind farms.

World map showing sea levels around 22,000 years ago.
World map showing sea levels as they were during last glacial maximum, circa 22,000 years ago with yellow dots to show proposed wind farm activity. Picture credit: University of Bradford/Simon Fitch.

Powerful supercomputers installed at the University of Bradford are being used to process the huge volumes of data the expeditions will produce and The Life on the Edge Project has already attracted attention from other archaeologists based overseas. Dr Jessica Cook Hale (University of Georgia, USA), is to join the project.

The Search for Sunken Settlements

The academic is an experienced archaeologist with over two decades of research and field work behind her, including having dived underwater prehistoric sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic coast.

Exploring an underwater "midden heap".
Dr Jessica Cook Hale, (University of Georgia), who has joined the Life on the Edge project, diving a 5,000-year-old “midden heap” in the Econfina Channel site off the coast of Florida in August of 2015. Picture credit: Jessica Cook Hale.

Dr Cook Hale commented that she was excited to be joining this project and stated:

“Bradford is one of the few places doing this. I looked at this project from afar and wanted to be a part of it, so I’m thrilled to be joining the team. Carrying out geo-archaeology on submerged landscapes is really the only way to approach the problem of finding out about our prehistoric ancestors. As archaeologists, we’re naturally curious, we always want to ask, what came before?”

Training the Next Generation of Geo-archaeologists

One of the aims of the project team is to help recruit and train the next generation of geo-archaeologists.

The Life on the Edge project is an appropriate moniker, the team will be using cutting-edge mapping and computer technology and they will be exploring places that no archaeologists have explored before.

We wish the team every success with this intriguing venture.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Bradford in the compilation of this article.

26 03, 2023

A Clever and Creative Dinosaur Wall Display

By | March 26th, 2023|Educational Activities, General Teaching, Key Stage 1/2, Main Page, Photos, Teaching|0 Comments

A colourful dinosaur wall display was spotted in a classroom when Everything Dinosaur team members conducted a dinosaur workshop at the school. The Year Two pupils had been learning all about prehistoric animals and fossils. The wall display had been produced during the term topic exploring “Would a Dinosaur Make a Good Pet”?

A Colourful Dinosaur wall display.
Everything Dinosaur team members are always impressed by school displays that feature dinosaurs and fossils. For example, Oakdene Primary pupils produced a colourful dinosaur wall display during their term topic studying prehistoric animals. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

A Colourful Dinosaur Wall Display

Children at Oakdene Primary produced fact sheets featuring their favourite prehistoric animal. There were fact sheets on Velociraptor, Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops. The eager, young palaeontologists had illustrated their dinosaur data sheets. The pictures and fact sheets were then posted up onto the “Wow Wall” in the classroom. The dinosaur facts and other learning materials made an attractive and most informative display.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We visited Oakdene Primary some years ago to deliver a dinosaur themed workshop. Everything Dinosaur had been invited into the school to support the children’s learning. At the time we praised the colourful wall display, and we were given permission to take a photograph.”

Learning About Dinosaurs

The spokesperson explained that Everything Dinosaur team members always tried to encourage children and to help them with their studies. Team members were quick to praise the teaching team for their hard work and dedication.

Visit Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: Visit Everything Dinosaur.

Many schools in England and Wales introduce a dinosaur and fossil themed term topic. Foundation Stage pupils as they transition from Nursery to Reception can find a dinosaur topic helpful. Year 3 pupils often learn about fossils and dinosaurs when studying rocks and soils.

A dinosaur term topic is also enjoyed by the teaching team. It certainly brings out plenty of creativity in the pupils that Everything Dinosaur team members have met.

25 03, 2023

Thirty Years of “Jurassic Park”

By | March 25th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

This year, marks the thirtieth anniversary of the release of the ground-breaking dinosaur movie “Jurassic Park”. The film was based on the 1990 novel by Michael Crichton. The film was extremely successful. It was a huge commercial success. It spawned a movie franchise with a further five films following, the original “Jurassic Park”.

Two Velociraptors illustrated by Caldey
The beautiful illustration of a pair of “raptors”. The drawing was inspired by the recent (June 2022) movie “Jurassic World Dominion. The adult Velociraptor Blue and her offspring Beta. Picture credit: Caldey.

To view dinosaur models and other prehistoric animal figures inspired by the “Jurassic Park” franchise: Dinosaur Toys, Replicas and Prehistoric Animal Figures.

The Legacy of “Jurassic Park”

Recently, Everything Dinosaur team members were interviewed about the impact of the film and the “Jurassic Park” legacy. The interview will form part of a seven-part, celebratory series being created for a YouTube channel.

The Impact on the Earth Sciences and Palaeontology

Many people working in the Earth sciences today, whether as palaeontologists or in some other related discipline were influenced by the movies. The Jurassic Park franchise is often cited as being a source of inspiration for them. The films and the book helped make up their mind as to their future career. They have watched the films, read the book and decided to become a palaeontologist.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“I do think it is fair to state that the book and these films have inspired and enthused new generations of scientists and academics. The Jurassic Park franchise has cemented the Dinosauria into popular culture and as a result, prehistoric animals are perhaps more popular than ever.”

The Everything Dinosaur spokesperson added:

“Jurassic Park may never exist, but maybe if the book or the films had never happened then perhaps what we term today as the golden age of palaeontology might not have come about.”

We look forwarded to viewing the YouTube videos when they are released later this year.

Visit Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: Everything Dinosaur.

24 03, 2023

The Beautiful CollectA Nautilus Model

By | March 24th, 2023|Adobe CS5, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos, Teaching|0 Comments

Whilst tidying up some papers, team members at Everything Dinosaur came across a visual of the CollectA nautilus model which was used in a YouTube video when this invertebrate figure was introduced back in 2020. The nautilus figure was one of seventeen new replicas introduced by CollectA in 2020.

CollectA Nautilus model.
The CollectA Nautilus model, a splendid replica of a living cephalopod. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

CollectA Nautilus Model

The largest extant species is Nautilus pompilius, which is sometimes also referred to as the Emperor nautilus. All living species are confined to tropical waters and these molluscs usually live at depths of more than a hundred metres.

In 2017, all the species of nautilus were afforded protection under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The shells are highly prized and attempts have been made to regulate the trade in shells. However, much of the trade in Asia remains uncontrolled and although not directly threatened with extinction conservationists have expressed concern about their long-term survival unless trade in the shells is better regulated.

Nautilus scale drawing.
A scale drawing of an extant nautilus (Nautilus pompilius). Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of CollectA not-to-scale models and replicas: CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Range.

23 03, 2023

New Prehistoric Times Magazine Issue 145 – Preview

By | March 23rd, 2023|Dinosaur Fans, Magazine Reviews, Main Page, Prehistoric Times|0 Comments

The editor of “Prehistoric Times” magazine sent team members at Everything Dinosaur a preview of the front cover of the next edition of the quarterly magazine. The dramatic front cover artwork, which features a South American “Terror Bird” attacking a sabre-toothed cat, was created by southern California artist Kurt Miller.

Prehistoric Times magazine issue 145
The front cover of Prehistoric Times magazine issue 145 (Spring 2023). Picture credit: Mike Fredericks.

Picture credit: Mike Fredericks

“Prehistoric Times”

The spring issue features artwork and information on two prehistoric animals, the dinosaur Hypsilophodon and the giant Kelenken (K. guillermoi) a “Terror Bird”, that we suspect was the inspiration behind the stunning front cover artwork.

Kelenken is known from the Middle Miocene of Argentina. Standing more than 3 metres tall, it is the largest member of the Phorusrhacidae to have been described to date. Body mass estimates vary, but some palaeontologists have suggested that this giant flightless bird weighed around 200 kilograms.

Spring 2023 Edition

The next edition of “Prehistoric Times” is due out in a few weeks. The magazine will also feature an article from the distinguished Canadian palaeontologist Phil Currie. Professor Currie will examine the key dinosaur discoveries that took place more than a century ago.

To learn more about the magazine and to subscribe: Prehistoric Times.

22 03, 2023

The New Papo Mosasaurus Model

By | March 22nd, 2023|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

The new for 2023 Papo Mosasaurus model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur. This marine reptile figure is the first new Papo prehistoric animal model to be introduced this year (2023). The model has an articulated lower jaw. It displays some amazing details such as pterygoid teeth located in the roof of the cavernous mouth.

Papo Mosasaurus model
The new for 2023 Papo Mosasaurus model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur. The Papo Mosasaurus figure has an articulated jaw. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

An Articulated Lower Jaw and Pterygoid Teeth

The Papo Mosasaurus marine reptile model measures around 25.5 cm (10 inches) in length and it has an articulated lower jaw. The impressively painted mouth reveals two rows of pterygoid teeth located towards the back of the mouth. These teeth, known in living members of the Squamata such as snakes, helped to grip prey and enabled these large predators to swallow their victims whole.

Pterygoid teeth of the Papo Mosasaurus model.
The Papo Mosasaurus figure has pterygoid teeth located in the roof of the mouth. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Mosasaurus Model

This new marine reptile figure has been given an asymmetrical tail fin, referred to as a hypocercal tail. One lobe, the lower lobe of the tail, is much larger than the upper lobe. The model has also been given powerful front flippers and a dorsal fin.

There are examples of soft tissue preservation in mosasaur specimens, most notably in a specimen reported in the journal “Nature Communications” by Lindgren et al (2013). A mosasaur fossil specimen from the Upper Cretaceous sediments of central Jordan provided evidence of the shape of the tail and the flippers as soft tissue impressions were preserved.

Team members at Everything Dinosaur are not aware of any direct fossil evidence to indicate that these reptiles had dorsal fins.

Papo Mosasaurus model.
The Papo Mosasaurus was due to come out at the end of 2022, it was expected quarter 1 of 2023 and it is now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

An Intriguing Marine Reptile Figure

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“The new Papo Mosasaurus is an intriguing marine reptile figure. A second marine reptile model from Papo is due out later this year. It is a Kronosaurus and we look forward to comparing the two models.”

To view the range of Papo models available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

Load More Posts