A pair of limited-edition Haolonggood models are being offered for sale. These fantastic dinosaur figures are limited to a production run of just 150 models. The replicas are made from high grade polyurethane and advanced resin. Each figure is supplied with its own beautiful display base. The dinosaurs featured are Daspletosaurus torosus and Pachyrhinosaurus. The models are in 1:20 scale.
Limited-edition Haolonggood Models
The two dinosaurs are due to be made in the autumn and should be ready for delivery to customers in time for Christmas (estimate).
Here are the details:
(A). 1:20 Scale Daspletosaurus torosus
A limited-edition (only 150 made) 1:20 scale figure of Daspletosaurus torosus complete with a display base. Model measures 46 cm long, 14 cm wide and stands 19 cm high. Weight 3 kgs. Designed by the chief designer at Haolonggood, hand-painted by Black Mamba artists and made from high grade polyurethane and advanced resin. Age restriction 15+. Scheduled for delivery December 2023. Guide price £299.00 plus shipping (September 2023).
(B) 1:20 Scale Pachyrhinosaurus spp.
A limited-edition (only 150 made) 1:20 scale replica of Pachyrhinosaurus complete with display base. Model measures 31 cm long, 12 cm wide and stands 18 cm high. Weight 3-4 kgs. Designed by the chief designer at Haolonggood, hand-painted by Black Mamba artists and made from high grade polyurethane and advanced resin. Age restriction 15+. Scheduled for delivery December 2023. Guide price £249.00 plus shipping (September 2023).
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:
“As a way of celebrating the partnership between Haolonggood and Everything Dinosaur these two limited-edition figures are being produced. They are simply fabulous and only 150 painted figures of each dinosaur are available in the entire world. We have received numerous enquiries about them already. Haolonggood are building a formidable reputation in the model making market.”
The recently introduced PNSO theropods Albertosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Megalosaurus feature in our latest newsletter. All three dinosaur models are now in stock at Everything Dinosaur after the latest PNSO shipment arrived at the warehouse. The Albertosaurus dinosaur model is the first new PNSO figure to be featured. Wally the Albertosaurus makes the headlines.
Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur
PNSO have recently focused on the manufacture of theropod dinosaur models. Tyrannosaurs have proved to be particularly popular. Joining the already in stock Daspletosaurus are Tristan the Gorgosaurus and Wally the Albertosaurus. In addition, the Chinese model manufacturer has introduced a replica of the first dinosaur to be scientifically described Megalosaurus bucklandii.
Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur
Both Tristan (Gorgosaurus) and Edward the Megalosaurus are supplied with a 64-page, full-colour booklet. Each model has a transparent support stand and both PNSO theropods have articulated jaws.
The latest PNSO shipment contained a lot of dinosaur figures that had recently become out of stock. Team members were able to contact customers who requested to be kept informed about stocking levels. Stocks of the popular Cameron the T. rex and the Scientific Art Amargasaurus were replenished.
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:
“We welcome the new PNSO theropods. Furthermore, we wanted to make sure all our customers knew about these models as quickly as possible. There had been a lot of emails from collectors concerning these new figures.”
Researchers including scientists from University College Cork (Ireland) have demonstrated that fossil feather proteins can persist over deep time. Using sophisticated and highly sensitive X-ray techniques the team have clarified the chemical composition of feathers preserved in the fossil record.
Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur
Identifying Fossil Feather Proteins
The study, published in “Nature Ecology and Evolution” provides a new perspective on feather evolution. Earlier research had suggested that primitive feathers had a different chemical composition to that of the feathers of extant birds. The new research reveals that the protein composition of modern-day feathers was also present in the feathers of dinosaurs and enantiornithine birds. The researchers conclude that the chemistry of feathers originated much earlier than previously thought.
The study was led by Dr Tiffany Slater and Professor Maria McNamara (School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Science, University College Cork). They worked in collaboration with scientists at Linyi University (China) and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource in the USA.
The feathers of the Early Cretaceous dromaeosaurid Sinornithosaurus were analysed. In addition, the integumentary covering of the enantiornithine Confuciusornis was studied.
Commenting upon the implications of their study, Dr Slater said:
“It’s really exciting to discover new similarities between dinosaurs and birds. To do this, we developed a new method to detect traces of ancient feather proteins. Using X-rays and infrared light we found that feathers from the dinosaur Sinornithosaurus contained lots of beta-proteins, just like feathers of birds today.”
Fossil proteins are valuable tools in evolutionary biology. Recent technological advances and better integration of experimental methods have confirmed the feasibility of biomolecular preservation in deep time, yielding new insights into the timing of key vertebrate evolutionary transitions.
Keratins (formerly α-keratins) and corneous β-proteins (CBPs, formerly β-keratins) are of particular interest to palaeontologists. These proteins define tissue structures that underpin fundamental physiological and ecological strategies and can provide evidence to help map how feathers evolved.
As well as using infrared and sulphur X-ray spectroscopy to plot chemical signals, the team also conducted taphonomic experiments to help them to understand how feather proteins break down during fossilisation.
Dr Slater explained:
“Modern bird feathers are rich in beta-proteins that help strengthen feathers for flight. Previous tests on dinosaur feathers, though, found mostly alpha-proteins. Our experiments can now explain this weird chemistry as the result of protein degradation during the fossilisation process. So, although some fossil feathers do preserve traces of the original beta-proteins, other fossil feathers are damaged and tell us a false narrative about feather evolution.”
Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur
The image above shows a Confuciusornis model from the PNSO range.
This study confirms that fossil feather proteins can survive fossilisation, that these proteins can persist through deep time.
Senior author of the study, Professor Maria McNamara (University College Cork) commented:
“Traces of ancient biomolecules can clearly survive for millions of years, but you can’t read the fossil record literally because even seemingly well-preserved fossil tissues have been cooked and squashed during fossilisation. We’re developing new tools to understand what happens during fossilisation and unlock the chemical secrets of fossils. This will give us exciting new insights into the evolution of important tissues and their biomolecules.”
As predicted by the experiments conducted by this study, analyses of Mesozoic feathers confirm that evidence of feather corneous β-proteins (CBPs) can persist through deep time.
Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from University College Cork in the compilation of this article.
The scientific paper: “Preservation of corneous β-proteins in Mesozoic feathers” by Tiffany S. Slater, Nicholas P. Edwards, Samuel M. Webb, Fucheng Zhang and Maria E. McNamara published in Nature Ecology and Evolution.
Everything Dinosaur can confirm that the recently arrived Ouranosaurus figures WuJu and WuWei have thumb spikes. Yes, we have Ouranosaurus thumb spikes. The Haolonggood Ouranosaurus models in stock at Everything Dinosaur are the latest version. These figures have a thumb spike.
Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur
Ouranosaurus Thumb Spikes
The earlier production run of these models lacked thumb spikes. However, once this omission had been highlighted, the design team at Haolonggood set about correcting this oversight. The digits on the manus (hand) have been remodelled to reflect more accurately the fossil record.
Everything Dinosaur will post up a short YouTube video in the near future that demonstrates how the model has been amended.
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur praised the Haolonggood model range. He highlighted the details found on the two Ouranosaurus models (WuJu and WuWei).
The spokesperson went onto add:
“We intend to post up a short video on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel featuring the two models. Customers have enquired about these Ouranosaurus figures and want to get the more accurate version with the thumb spike. Our video will highlight the thumb spikes helping to inform and reassure our customers.”
A new taxon of avialan theropod has been described from fossils found in Fujian Province (China). This small dinosaur has been named Fujianvenator prodigiosus. The fossil bones demonstrate a mosaic of anatomical features that are shared with early avialans as well as other members of the Maniraptora.
Writing in the academic journal “Nature”, the researchers describe this new theropod and state that it is one of the stratigraphically youngest avialans described to date. Fujianvenator roamed a wetland environment around 148-150 million years ago (Tithonian faunal stage of the Late Jurassic). Its fossils are likely to prove invaluable in understanding the evolution of the characteristic bird body plan, and to reconcile phylogenetic controversies over the origin of birds.
Fujianvenator is one of the geographically southernmost Jurassic avialans known to science. The headless specimen was excavated from Nanyuan Formation deposits near Yangyuan Village (Zhenghe County).
Defining the Avialae
The Avialae (means bird wings), is a clade of theropods. It contains the Aves (avian dinosaurs) and all non-avian dinosaurs more closely related to birds than to deinonychosaurs. In turn, the Avialae is part of the larger Maniraptora which includes all birds, and well-known types of dinosaurs such as dromaeosaurs, troodontids, the Alvarezsauroidea, the therizinosaurs and the Oviriaptorosauria.
During the fieldwork, a diverse assemblage of vertebrate fossils were documented. The assemblage is dominated by aquatic and semi-aquatic species. Fossil discoveries include fish, turtles and choristoderes (semi-aquatic, diapsid reptiles). Only one dinosaur fossil has been found at the location (Fujianvenator prodigiosus). Furthermore, this is the first time that a dinosaur fossil has been discovered in Fujian Province.
Fujianvenator and the Zhenghe Fauna
Fujianvenator demonstrates a mosaic of morphological features. The forelimbs are similar to those of Archaeopteryx, whereas the hip bones are more typical of troodontids. The hindlimb is elongated, suggesting that this theropod adapted to a wading lifestyle. In contrast, other early avialans show specific adaptations to powered flight or a life in the trees.
Such is the amount of vertebrate fossil material collected that the palaeontologists can build up a detailed map of this ancient swampland ecosystem. They are confident that it will provide key insights into terrestrial ecosystems of the Late Jurassic. Perhaps more avialan theropod fossils will be found.
Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in the compilation of this article.
The scientific paper: “A new avialan theropod from an emerging Jurassic terrestrial fauna” by Liming Xu, Min Wang, Runsheng Chen, Liping Dong, Min Lin, Xing Xu, Jianrong Tang, Hailu You, Guowu Zhou, Linchang Wang, Wenxing He, Yujuan Li, Chi Zhang and Zhonghe Zhou published in Nature.
The first shipment of Haolonggood dinosaur models is due to arrive at the Everything Dinosaur warehouse on Wednesday, 20th September (2023). A spokesperson from the UK-based mail order company explained that the shipment had cleared customs. Transport had been arranged to deliver the Haolonggood dinosaur models to Everything Dinosaur. The models should be on-line and available for sale, either late on the 20th or by early Thursday morning (21st).
Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur
For information about Haolonggood dinosaur models and other prehistoric animal figures stocked by Everything Dinosaur: Email Everything Dinosaur.
Haolonggood Dinosaur Models
In total, there will be nineteen different Haolonggood dinosaur models delivered.
Here is the full list:
Nasutoceratops (Huarong) and Nasutoceratops (Yanqing).
Ouranosaurus (Wuwei) and Ouranosaurus (Wuju).
Tianzhenosaurus (Shixiou) and Tianzhenosaurus (Yangxiong).
Pentaceratops (Lioutang) and Pentaceratops (Likui).
Apatosaurus (Shijing) and Apatosaurus (Huangxin).
Wuerhosaurus (Shiyong) and Wuerhosaurus (Jiaoting).
Pachyrhinosaurus (Ivfang) and Pachyrhinosaurus (Guosheng).
Edmontonia (Jiezhen) and Edmontonia (Jiebao).
Allosaurus (Yangzhi) and Allosaurus (Suochao).
Haolonggood Allosaurus Figures
Haolonggood tend to create two colour variants of each prehistoric animal model that they manufacture. The picture (above) shows the new Haolonggood Allosaurus figures. The model on the left is Suochao, whilst the blue Allosaurus on the right of the image is Yangzhi. Both these Allosaurus models will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur.
The spokesperson commented that this was a substantial shipment and team members would do all they could to ensure the figures were available for sale on the company’s website as quickly as possible.
Scientists have formally named a new species of hypsilophodontid dinosaur from the Isle of Wight. The new species, named Vectidromeus insularis, is the second member of the hypsilophodont family to be found on the island after Hypsilophodon foxii. This discovery lends weight to the theory that Europe had its own unique biota of small herbivorous dinosaurs, distinct from those found in North America and Asia.
Four blocks containing fossil bones were collected at different times from Wessex Formation exposures at Sudmoor Point which is located on the western side of the island about 2 miles (3.2 kms) from the village of Brighstone. The largest block contains hip bones, dorsal vertebrae, a left femur and lower leg bones. The second block contains other parts of the lower leg bones and some tailbones. A third block consists of elements from the right femur and the right tibia. The small fourth block contains the left metatarsals and bones from the toes (phalanges). Blocks one and two come from the same animal and the other fossils can be tentatively ascribed to the same individual.
The fossils represent a chicken-sized juvenile. Vectidromeus may have grown much larger.
Closely Related to Hypsilophodon foxii
The specimen shows numerous autapomorphies that distinguish it from Hypsilophodon foxii. For example, the hip bones are very different. The blade of the ilium is short and deep, and the ischia are more rectangular in shape. The fourth trochanter, a muscle attachment scar on the femur is proportionately larger. As both juvenile and adult specimens of H. foxii are known, the research team confidently stated that these anatomical traits were not due to the dinosaur’s young age. The different characteristics indicate a new dinosaur genus, albeit one closely related to Hypsilophodon.
Dr Nicholas Longrich, from the Milner Centre for Evolution at the University of Bath, led the study. He commented:
“Palaeontologists have been working on the Isle of Wight for more than a century, and these fossils have played an important role in the history of vertebrate palaeontology, but we’re still making new discoveries about the dinosaur fauna as the sea erodes new fossils out of the cliffs.”
Vectidromeus Geologically Much Older than Hypsilophodon
Vectidromeus probably dates from the earliest Barremian or the latest Hauterivian stage of the Early Cretaceous (125-126 million years ago. The H. foxii material from the Hypsilophodon beds higher up the stratigraphic column, lie at the top of the Wessex Formation and are no younger than 121.4 million years. Therefore, as much as 4.6 million years could separate these two taxa.
The Cretaceous strata on the Isle of Wight are hundreds of metres thick and span several million years. Scientific consensus is still not entirely clear how old they are – so the fossils may be sampling a whole series of evolving ecosystems, each with a different set of species.
Co-author on the study, Professor Dave Martill (University of Portsmouth) stated:
“It is utterly bizarre that so many new dinosaurs are being discovered on the Isle of Wight. Vectidromeus is the seventh new species of dinosaur to be discovered in the last four years. This is all down to the amateur collectors.”
It is likely that many new species of dinosaur will be described from fossils found on the Isle of Wight. Palaeontologists are building up a more complete picture of the dinosaur dominated fauna that existed in this part of the world during the Early Cretaceous.
Dozens of small plant-eating dinosaurs have been assigned to the hypsilophodont family, but revisions to the dinosaur family tree have resulted in reclassifying them to other branches of the tree, leaving Hypsilophodon as the only species left in the family.
Dr Longrich added:
“We had a curious situation where one of the first dinosaur families to be recognised had just one species. And now, we have two. What’s intriguing is that they’re not particularly closely related to anything found in North America, Asia, or the Southern Hemisphere. We’re still piecing together how all these dinosaurs are related, and how dinosaurs moved between continents. After Pangaea broke up, there was a lot of isolation, leading to different kinds of dinosaurs evolving on each continent.”
This newly published scientific paper highlights the contribution made to science by fossil hunters and their local knowledge.
Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Bath in the compilation of this article.
The scientific paper: “Vectidromeus insularis, a new hypsilophodontid dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Wessex Formation of the Isle of Wight, England” by Nicholas R. Longrich, David M. Martill, Martin Munt, Mick Green, Mark Penn and Shaun Smith published in Cretaceous Research.
Everything Dinosaur has commissioned a Dicraeosaurus scale drawing to use in a fact sheet in anticipation of the arrival of the Haolonggood Dicraeosaurus model. The Haolonggood shipment is due to arrive at the company’s warehouse in a few days.
Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur
Dicraeosaurus Scale Drawing
The Haolonggood Dicraeosaurus sauropod model has a scale of 1:35. The figure measures a fraction under 36 cm long. It stands approximately 9.5 cm high.
Two species have been named. Both the type species Dicraeosaurus hansemanni and the potentially geologically younger D. sattleri are known from numerous skeletons, many of which are nearly complete. Dicraeosaurus had a short neck, and a relatively large head. The jaws were more robust than those of other diplodocids. It is likely that this sauropod fed on coarse plant material.
Dicraeosaurus is regarded as one of the largest of the dicraeosaurid dinosaurs. Palaeontologists estimate that it grew to a length of around fifteen metres.
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented that the team members were looking forward to the arrival of the Haolonggood models.
The spokesperson added:
“We expect the PNSO and Haolonggood shipments to arrive at our warehouse on the same day. It is likely that they will arrive next Wednesday [20th September]. We have made plans to ensure we can unpack the shipment rapidly and then get these sets of figures on-line quickly.We have also allocated some time that day to contact all those customers who wanted to be informed when the PNSO and Haolonggood figures arrived.”
Scientists have used complex statistical analysis to assess one of the most dramatic changes in the history of visible life on Earth. At the end of the Permian, during a mass extinction event there was a dramatic and extensive faunal turnover between brachiopods and bivalves.
One of the biggest crises in Earth’s history was marked by a revolution in the shellfish. Brachiopods, sometimes called “lamp shells”, as some genera superficially resembled Roman lamps, were replaced everywhere ecologically by the bivalves, such as clams, mussels and oysters. This happened as a result of the devastating end-Permian mass extinction which reset the evolution of life 250 million years ago.
Research conducted by palaeontologists based in Wuhan (China) and the University of Bristol, has shed new light on this crucial faunal turnover when ocean ecosystems changed, eventually taking on a more modern, familiar structure that still persists today.
Brachiopods and Bivalves
Life on land and in the sea is rich and forms particular ecosystems. In modern oceans, the seabed is dominated by animals such as bivalves, corals, gastropods, crustaceans, marine worms and fishes. These ecosystems all date back to the Triassic when life slowly recovered from the “Great Dying”. During that crisis, only one in twenty species survived, and there has been long debate about how the new ecosystems were constructed and why some groups survived, and others perished.
Brachiopods were the dominant shelled animals prior to the extinction. However, bivalves thrived afterwards, seemingly better adapting to their new conditions.
Lead author of the study published in “Nature Communications”, Zhen Guo commented:
“A classic case has been the replacement of brachiopods by bivalves. Palaeontologists used to say that the bivalves were better competitors and so beat the brachiopods somehow during this crisis time. There is no doubt that brachiopods were the major group of shelled animals before the extinction, and bivalves took over after.”
Statistical Bayesian Analysis
Co-author Joe Flannery-Sutherland added:
“We wanted to explore the interactions between brachiopods and bivalves through their long history and especially around the Permian-Triassic handover period. So, we decided to use a computational method called Bayesian analysis to calculate rates of origination, extinction, and fossil preservation, as well as testing whether the brachiopods and bivalves interacted with each other. For example, did the rise of bivalves cause the decline of brachiopods?”
The researchers found that in fact both groups shared similar trends in diversification dynamics right through the time of global crisis.
This suggests that these two groups were not really competing or preying on each other. It is more likely that these unrelated groups were responding to similar external drivers such as fluctuations in sea temperature, oxygen levels and acidity.
The bivalves eventually prevailed, and the brachiopods retreated to deeper waters, where they still occur, but in much reduced numbers.
Statistical Analysis to Resolve the Brachiopods and Bivalves Faunal Turnover Issue
Professor Zhong-Qiang Chen (China University of Geosciences, Wuhan) explained that it was very satisfying to see how modern computational techniques helped resolve a long-standing issue in palaeontology.
Professor Zhong-Qiang Chen stated:
“We always thought that the end-Permian mass extinction marked the end of the brachiopods and that was that. But it seems that both brachiopods and bivalves were hit hard by the crisis, and both recovered in the Triassic, but the bivalves could adapt better to high ocean temperatures. So, this gave them the edge, and after the Jurassic, they just rocketed in numbers, and the brachiopods didn’t do much.”
Fossils of over 330,000 brachiopods and bivalves were analysed in the course of this study. The Bristol University supercomputer took weeks to crunch all the numbers. The Bayesian analysis took into account all kinds of uncertainties and aspects of the data to provide an extremely detailed report on the evolutionary changes.
Professor Michael Benton (University of Bristol) concluded:
“The end-Permian mass extinction was the biggest of all time, and it massively reset evolution. In fact the 50 million years after the crisis, the Triassic, marked a revolution in life on land and in the sea. Understanding just how life could come back from near-annihilation and then set the basis for modern ecosystems is one of the big questions in macroevolution. I’m sure we haven’t said the last word here though!”
Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Bristol in the compilation of this article.
The scientific paper: “Bayesian analyses indicate bivalves did not drive the downfall of brachiopods following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction” by Zhen Guo, Joseph T. Flannery-Sutherland, Michael J. Benton, and Zhong-Qiang Chen published in Nature Communications.
The discovery of a new species of horned dinosaur from the Judith River Formation of Montana has been announced. The new dinosaur named Furcatoceratops elucidans has been assigned to the Nasutoceratopsini subfamily of the Centrosaurinae. This ceratopsian is known from a single, sub-adult specimen (holotype number NSM PV 24660). However, the nearly complete and three-dimensionally preserved bones have the potential to yield valuable data on early centrosaurines. The fossil material was first described in 2015, it was reputed to represent an Avaceratops.
The disarticulated skeleton was collected from the upper Coal Ridge Member of the Judith River Formation. The fossil material is believed to around 75.6 million years old (Campanian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous. Postcranial material recovered included a substantial proportion of the left side of the body, including a complete left front limb and parts of the pelvis. In addition, a significant amount of skull material was excavated.
Although the fossil specimen represents a sub-adult, researchers estimate that this herbivorous dinosaur probably reached a maximum length of around four metres. It may be possible to calculate an accurate assessment of bodyweight using circumference measurements of the left femur. Consequently, it may be possible to demonstrate that a fully grown adult Furcatoceratops would have weighed over five hundred kilograms.
A Significant Ceratopsid Fossil Discovery
The authors of the scientific paper conducted a phylogenetic assessment and concluded that F. elucidans was closely related to Nasutoceratops titusi from Utah and Avaceratops lammersi, which is also known from the Judith River Formation. Although Avaceratops lammersi was scientifically described in 1986, palaeontologists have remained uncertain with regards to classifying ceratopsid fossil material associated with other strata within the Coal Ridge Member.
The Furcatoceratops fossils will permit palaeontologists to study postcranial autapomorphies. Research on centrosaurines will be less reliant on skull fossil characteristics. Therefore, the Furcatoceratops holotype will likely be valuable for understanding previously neglected aspects of ceratopsian anatomy.
The genus translates as “forked horn face”, presumably a reference to the curved shape of the prominent brow horns. The species name comes from the Latin for “enlightening”, which reflects the significance of the holotype in terms of providing insights into ceratopsid anatomy and growth rates.
Scale Drawing and Illustration
Everything Dinosaur team members were composing a blog post about Furcatoceratops when an email was received from American artist Tim Bollinger. We checked out his DevianArt page: UnexpectedDinoLesson and discovered that he had drawn Furcatoceratops.
“I love everything you are doing at Everything Dinosaur. I am a dinosaur enthusiast myself, and an aspiring palaeoartist I would love to be involved with Everything Dinosaur in any way possible.”
We explained that we get many requests such as this. However, in a bid to showcase his work, we asked and received permission to feature Tim’s illustration of Furcatoceratops in our blog post.
Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of artist Tim Bollinger in the compilation of this article.
Take a look at Tim Bollinger’s work under the moniker UnexpectedDinoLesson:
Instagram – @unexpecteddinolesson Facebook – @UnexpectedDinoLesson X (Twitter) – @Dino_Lesson YouTube – @unexpecteddinolesson (subscribe to the channel here: Unexpected Dinosaur On YouTube.
The scientific paper: “Furcatoceratops elucidans, a new centrosaurine (Ornithischia: Ceratopsidae) from the upper Campanian Judith River Formation, Montana, USA” by Hiroki Ishikawa, Takanobu Tsuihiji and Makoto Manabe published in Cretaceous Research.