All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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Dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed articles, features and stories.

17 08, 2022

Sinopliosaurus – Theropod or Pliosaur?

By | August 17th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

With the announcement of the new PNSO spinosaurid figure Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus earlier this week (Monday, 15th August), team members at Everything Dinosaur thought it might be helpful to outline the taxonomic history of this enigmatic theropod. Fragmentary fossils that led to the establishment of the Sinopliosaurus genus were originally thought to represent a marine reptile. One that had lived in a huge freshwater lake during the Early Jurassic around 180 million years ago (Toarcian faunal stage).

Everything Dinosaur expects this dinosaur model to be in stock in the autumn.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus dinosaur model.
PNSO are adding a second member of the Spinosauridae family to their mid-size model range. Joining Essien the Spinosaurus is Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus. The taxonomic history of Sinopliosaurus is somewhat complicated.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus – an Explanation

Fragmentary bones including three vertebrae, a tooth, elements from the hips (the ischium) and a femur (thigh bone) found in Lower Jurassic (Toarcian faunal stage) Ziliujing Formation exposures at Weiyuan (Sichuan Province, China) were thought to represent a freshwater pliosaur. Although very little of the skeleton was known, the fossil bones that were found were preserved in three-dimensions and not flattened and the pliosaur species Sinopliosaurus weiyuanensis was confidently erected (1944). The femur for example, was described as being of the “usual Plesiosaurian type”, robust, rather squat and not elongated. The ischium was noted as being reminiscent of the Late Cretaceous Canadian plesiosaur Leurospondylus ultimus, which had been erected by Barnum Brown in 1913. L. ultimus itself is a disputed taxon, classified as “incertae sedis”. This marine reptile was described based on fossil material most likely from a juvenile and the material might represent an elasmosaurid.

The taxonomic status of Leurospondylus ultimus remains unresolved.

Elasmosaurus scale drawing
The Elasmosaurus scale drawing commissioned by Everything Dinosaur as the company’s fact sheet was updated. When Sinopliosaurus weiyuanensis was described, the ischium was thought to closely resemble the hip bones associated with Leurospondylus (L. ultimus). This helped to confirm the diagnosis that S. weiyuanensis fossil material represented a marine reptile – a member of the Plesiosauria clade.

The genus name (Sinopliosaurus) means “Chinese more lizard”, reflecting the assumed close taxonomic relationship with pliosaurs found elsewhere in the world.

Who Named the Pliosaurus Genus?

It was the English anatomist Sir Richard Owen who first used the genus Pliosaurus (Pliosaurus brachydeirus) back in 1841. Owen mistakenly believed that Pliosaurus was “more” closely related to “saurians” (including crocodilians) than it was to Plesiosaurus.

Pliosaurus scale drawing.
A scale drawing of a Pliosaurus. Fossils from the Lower Jurassic Ziliujing Formation and later fossil discoveries from the geologically much younger Xinlong Formation (sometimes referred to as the Napai Formation), were originally thought to represent a freshwater pliosaur. Only later did some of these fossils become ascribed to a species of spinosaurid theropod dinosaur. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Sinopliosaurus weiyuanensis (Chung Chien Young) 1944

The scientific description of S. weiyuanensis was published in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of China in 1944 by the eminent, Chinese palaeontologist and zoologist C.C. (Chung Chien) Young. Regarded as the “Father of Chinese vertebrate palaeontology”, his diagnosis was not challenged or questioned.

Spinosaurid fossils from Asia were unknown, the only substantial research into this enigmatic family of dinosaurs had been taking place in Germany (Stromer – Spinosaurus aegyptiacus). As the fossils were similar to those fossils ascribed to pliosaurs, it was thought that these Chinese fossils too, also represented a marine reptile.

Sinopliosaurus fusuiensis (Hou et al) 1975

Five isolated teeth from the Early Cretaceous Xinlong Formation (sometimes referred to as the Napai Formation) found in Fusui County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (South China), were described by Chinese palaeontologist Hou Lian-Hai and colleagues and a second species of Sinopliosaurus was erected – S. fusuiensis (1975).

The strata associated with these fossils is difficult to date accurately, but the consensus is that these sediments were deposited around 120 to 100 million years ago (Aptian-Albian faunal stage of the Early Cretaceous). The fossils ascribed to S. fusuiensis were around sixty million years younger than the fossil material associated with S. weiyuanensis.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus has an articulated jaw.
PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus has an articulated jaw. The genus was originally erected under the presumption that the fossil material including isolated teeth represented a pliosaur (marine reptile).

The Emergence of Asian Spinosaurs – Siamosaurus suteethorni

Fossil teeth collected from the Lower Cretaceous Sao Khua Formation (Barremian faunal stage) in north-eastern Thailand by a joint Thai/French team in the early 1980s led to the conclusion that they represented an unusual theropod dinosaur or possibly an, as yet undescribed crocodyliform. A reassessment of the fossil material in 1986 led to the establishment of the Asian spinosaurid species Siamosaurus suteethorni. Subsequently, other fossil material has been described and assigned to this genus, principally fossils excavated from the slightly geologically younger Khok Kruat Formation of Thailand.

Siamosaurus was the first Asian spinosaur to be described and following its scientific description (Buffetaut and Ingavat, 1986), teeth and other material found in Asia has been reassigned to the Spinosauridae.

In 2008, Buffetaut and colleagues published a scientific paper (Cambridge University Press), that challenged the placement of Sinopliosaurus fusuiensis as a marine reptile. It was concluded that the conical teeth assigned to S. fusuiensis were not typical of a member of the Plesiosauria. Specifically, it was noted that these teeth bear carinae (sharp edges) on the plane of the crown’s curvature, a characteristic not seen in Plesiosauria teeth. Buffetaut et al subsequently re-described the material and stated that the teeth came from a spinosaurid theropod closely allied to Siamosaurus suteethorni.

The exact taxonomic position of S. fusuiensis remains unresolved, although the discovery of potential spinosaurid fossil material in Japan and the naming of the spinosaurid Ichthyovenator (I. laosensis) by Allain et al in 2012 confirms the presence of this enigmatic family of theropod dinosaurs in the Early Cretaceous of Asia.

“Fish Hunter” from Laos. A scale drawing of Ichthyovenator laosensis.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus

The PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus (S. fusuiensis), is expected in stock at Everything Dinosaur in the autumn of 2022.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus landscape view
The PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus is depicted walking close to a river. Fossils now ascribed to this theropod come from a fluvial/lacustrine palaeoenvironment (Xinlong Formation).

To view the wide range of PNSO models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur including Essien the Spinosaurus models: PNSO Spinosaurus and Other Prehistoric Animal Figures.

16 08, 2022

Prehistoric Animal Models from PNSO Feature in Newsletter

By | August 16th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

The PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong and six other PNSO prehistoric animal figures feature in the latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter. Lingwulong, the first replica of this Chinese diplodocoid dinosaur to be made by a mainstream manufacturer has arrived in stock at Everything Dinosaur along with replenishment stocks of other PNSO prehistoric animal models in the latest shipment to reach Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse.

PNSO Lingwulong features in customer newsletter.
The new for summer 2022 PNSO Lingwulong sauropod model features in the latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter.

PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong

This large model (the figure measures over forty-seven centimetres in length), is a replica of the dicraeosaurid from the Middle Jurassic of China. It is the earliest known diplodocoid and the first of this type of sauropod dinosaur to be reported from Asia.

PNSO Kronosaurus and the Stegosaurus Pair
Fresh supplies of the Kronosaurus figure (Jeff the Kronosaurus) and the stegosaur pair (Biber and Rook) have arrived at the Everything Dinosaur warehouse.

PNSO Kronosaurus and Biber and Rook (Stegosaurus Pair)

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have been busy unloading and checking the latest PNSO product delivery. The PNSO Jeff the Kronosaurus and the stegosaur pair (Biber and Rook) are now back in stock. These figures would make a welcome addition to the model collection of a prehistoric animal fan.

To join the subscription list for the free Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter: Email Everything Dinosaur.

PNSO T. rex and Carnotaurus models feature in newsletter.
A fantastic pair of short-armed theropod dinosaurs. Wilson the T. rex (latest version) and Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model are now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

PNSO Wilson the T. rex and Domingo the Carnotaurus

The shipment also contained Wilson the T. rex dinosaur model (latest version) and the popular PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus figure.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur welcomed these fine examples of a tyrannosaurid and an abelisaurid back into stock at the company’s warehouse.

PNSO Nick the Ceratosaurus and Brook the Ophthalmosaurus feature in company newsletter.
The huge Nick the Ceratosaurus and the equally impressive Brook the Ophthalmosaurus are also back in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Favourites Back into Stock Too

The enormous Nick the Ceratosaurus dinosaur model is back in stock. Brook (the not quite so big but still an impressive 48 cm long), Ophthalmosaurus is also available once more.

The spokesperson confirmed that Everything Dinosaur was committed to stocking older PNSO products as well as the latest additions to the PNSO Age of Dinosaurs model series.

To view the huge range of PNSO models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: PNSO Sauropod Models and Prehistoric Animal Figures.

15 08, 2022

PNSO to Add a Sinopliosaurus Model

By | August 15th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

PNSO have announced that they will be adding a replica of the Chinese spinosaurid Sinopliosaurus to their range of mid-sized prehistoric animal models. This new for 2022 dinosaur model is expected in stock at Everything Dinosaur in the autumn (2022).

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus model measurements.
PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus measures 29.3 cm long and stands 8.5 cm high.

Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus

Say hello to Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus, a genus of spinosaurid dinosaur with a rather convoluted and complicated taxonomic history. This is the second member of the Spinosauridae family to be added to the company’s mid-sized model range after Essien the Spinosaurus was announced back in quarter 4 of 2020.

The Sinopliosaurus measures an impressive 29.3 cm long and it stands around 8.5 cm high. As with other figures in the PNSO mid-size model range, it has no declared scale (helpful as the size estimates for Sinopliosaurus are speculative).

It has been given a deep, broad tail, in keeping with some of the latest research associated with the Spinosauridae, specifically Spinosaurus aegyptiacus.

PNSO Sinopliosaurus model.
The broad, deep tail of Sinopliosaurus can be seen in this image of the new PNSO dinosaur model.

Spinosaurid Supplied with Posters and a Full-colour Booklet

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that this exciting, new dinosaur figure would be in stock in the autumn and that it would be supplied with a 64-page, fully illustrated booklet and an animal poster. The model would also have an articulated lower jaw.

PNSO Sinopliosaurus supplied with poster and booklet.
The PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus dinosaur model is supplied with an animal poster and a 64-page, full-colour illustrated booklet.

Spectacular Spinosaurid – Sinopliosaurus

Known from highly fragmentary fossils, once thought to represent a pliosaur (marine reptile), Sinopliosaurus (S. fusuiensis) was named and scientifically described in 1975 (Hou, Yeh and Zhao), but eventually assigned to the Spinosauridae family when evidence of Asian spinosaurids emerged.

It is the only spinosaur described to date from China. The spectacular Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus will have an articulated lower jaw.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus has an articulated jaw.
PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus has an articulated jaw. The genus was originally erected under the presumption that the fossil material including isolated teeth represented a pliosaur (marine reptile).

Expected in Stock – Autumn 2022

The PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus dinosaur model is expected to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in the autumn (2022).

Why does a spinosaurid have a name that sounds like Pliosaurus – a genus of marine reptile? The taxonomic history of this theropod is both convoluted and complicated. It involves Early Jurassic fossils, Sir Richard Owen and his mistakes, Early Cretaceous fossil material, excavations in Thailand and Laos plus a lot of confusion. We will post up an explanation on Wednesday 17th August (2022), that hopefully, sheds some light on all this.

To view the range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Age of Dinosaurs (PNSO).

13 08, 2022

A Very Strange Armoured Dinosaur from South America

By | August 13th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Researchers have announced the discovery of a new species of Late Cretaceous armoured dinosaur from fragmentary fossils found in North Patagonia, (Río Negro Province, Argentina). It may represent an entirely new and previously unknown branch of the armoured dinosaur family tree from South America (Gondwana). Named Jakapil kaniukura (pronounced Jack-a-pil can-nee-ook-your-rah), it is the first definitive thyreophoran species from the Patagonia of Argentina and it might have been a biped with short, stumpy arms reminiscent of the abelisaurid theropod dinosaurs.

Jakapil kaniukura life reconstruction (thyreophoran).
Life reconstruction of Jakapil kaniukura, the first thyreophoran dinosaur of its kind from Argentina and South America. Picture credit: Mauricio Álvarez and Gabriel Díaz Yanten (paleogdy).

Fossils from the “La Buitrera Paleontological Area” (LBPA)

Writing in the academic journal “Scientific Reports”, researchers from the Universidad Maimónides (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in collaboration with a colleague from the Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (Bilbao, Spain), report the discovery of a fragmentary, disarticulated skeleton representing a sub-adult animal, from the upper beds of the Candeleros Formation (early Late Cretaceous 94-97 million years ago). The sandstone exposures represent aeolian (wind borne) sand dunes indicating an arid to semi-arid palaeoenvironment in what is now termed the “La Buitrera Paleontological Area” (LBPA). The holotype (MPCA-PV-371), consists of skull elements including bones from the jaw, rib fragments, bones from the shoulders, two partial upper arm bones (humeri), a possible partial right ulna and other assorted fragmentary limb bones. Fifteen partial teeth were also recovered along with numerous osteoderms (dermal armour).

Jakapil kaniukura skeletal reconstruction.
Skeletal reconstruction of Jakapil kaniukura with known fossil material in white. Fragmentary fossil material pictured, note scale bar = 40 cm. Picture credit: Riguetti et al.

The sub-adult animal is estimated to have had a body length of less than 1.5 metres, perhaps weighing around 4.5 to 7 kilograms.

Commenting on the significance of this fossil discovery, lead author of the paper Facundo Riguetti (Universidad Maimónides), stated:

“Our finding is important for several reasons. On the one hand, Jakapil expands the fossil record known in the region and allows us to know a little better the prehistoric ecosystem of our land, and specifically of the ancient Kokorkom desert, today northern Patagonia.”

Jakapil kaniukura excavation site.
First author of the scientific paper, Facundo Riguetti at the dig site. Picture credit: Sebastián Apesteguía.

The PhD student went onto add:

“Moreover, this new species represents a lineage of thyreophoran dinosaurs previously unknown in South America. The Thyreophora originated about two hundred million years ago and evolved rapidly into several species distributed throughout the world. However, of these early thyreophorans, the lineage represented by Jakapil was the only one that persisted until at least a hundred million years ago.”

A Survivor from an Ancient Armoured Dinosaur Line

Phylogenetic analysis recovers Jakapil kaniukura either as a basal member of the Thyreophora or a stem ankylosaur, closely related to Scelidosaurus, fossils of which are associated with the Lower Jurassic Charmouth Mudstone Formation of Dorset, England. Its discovery suggests that early thyreophorans had a much broader geographic distribution than previously thought and that an ancient lineage persisted into the early Late Cretaceous.

One of the dermal scutes associated with the Jakapil kaniukura fossil specimen.
Fossilised fragment of dermal bones that act as armour for the plant-eating dinosaur. Picture credit: Facundo Riguetti.

A Bipedal Armoured Dinosaur

Evolutionary trends observed in armoured dinosaurs suggest a transition between small, cursorial, light-weight species to much larger, heavily armoured quadrupedal forms epitomised by the likes of Stegosaurus in the Late Jurassic and Ankylosaurus and Edmontonia in the Late Cretaceous. The relative dimensions of the forelimb and hind limb bear a greater resemblance to those of bipedal theropods and basal ornithischian dinosaurs than they do to members of the Thyreophora.

The reduced nature of the upper arm, indicated by the fragmentary humeri resembles the arm bones of abelisaurids – famous for their tiny, almost vestigial front limbs.

Life reconstruction Jakapil kaniukura.
A life reconstruction of the newly described Cretaceous thyreophoran Jakapil kaniukura. Picture credit: Daniel Boh with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur.

Etymology

The genus name is from the northern Tehuelchean language meaning “shield bearer”, whilst the species name is derived from the Mapudungun language for “crest” (kaniu) and “stone” (kura) which references the diagnostic bony crest on the lower jaw.

Co-author of the scientific paper Sebastián Apesteguía at the Jakapil dig site.
Co-author of the scientific paper Sebastián Apesteguía at the Jakapil dig site. Picture credit: Pablo Destito.

The researchers, including co-author Sebastián Apesteguía (Universidad Maimónides) speculate that Jakapil, if it was a biped, resembled Scutellosaurus, which is known from the Early Jurassic of Arizona. However, they caution against defining this little armoured dinosaur as bipedal. They observe that it still retains some anatomical characteristics associated with a quadrupedal stance and they comment that more complete limb bones are required to make a more accurate assessment of its locomotion.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “A new Cretaceous thyreophoran from Patagonia supports a South American lineage of armoured dinosaurs” by Facundo J. Riguetti, Sebastián Apesteguía and Xabier Pereda-Suberbiola published in Scientific Reports.

12 08, 2022

PNSO Lingwulong Dinosaur Model in Stock

By | August 12th, 2022|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

The PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur. The latest PNSO new for 2022 prehistoric animal model has arrived at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse. Team members at the UK-based mail order company have been busy contacting all those customers who requested that they be alerted when this new Jurassic sauropod figure arrived.

PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong in stock at Everything Dinosaur.
The PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model has arrived at Everything Dinosaur. Team members inspect boxes and check contents prior to booking this new for 2022 sauropod figure into stock.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur reported that the cartons containing the PNSO Lingwulong would be checked over before all the boxes were put on pallets once again and stored in the PNSO designated area of the company’s warehouse.

The picture (above) shows some cartons in one of the packing rooms having been opened and the contents checked over.

The posters for the PNSO Chuanchuan Lingwulong model
Posters and booklet for the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model. The new for 2022 PNSO diplodocoid figure is supplied with a prehistoric animal poster and a full-colour, 64-page booklet. A QR code can be scanned which allows access to a short video that explains how this new dinosaur model was created.

Model Measurements

The Lingwulong model is quite large, it measures around 47.5 cm in length and stands approximately 13.5 cm tall.

To view the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model and the rest of the figures in the extensive PNSO prehistoric animal model range, take a look at the PNSO section of Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: PNSO Lingwulong and Other Jurassic Dinosaur Models.

11 08, 2022

Eye Socket Study Provides New Insight on the Shape of Dinosaur Skulls

By | August 11th, 2022|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Newly published research suggests that super-sized theropod dinosaurs such as Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus rex evolved different shaped eye sockets to better withstand high bite forces. That is the conclusion postulated in a scientific paper published today in “Communications Biology”.

In the majority of vertebrates including most of the Dinosauria, the eye socket (orbit) is just a circular hole in the skull housing the eyeball. However, eye socket shape is very different in large, dinosaur carnivores (Theropoda).

Eye socket study in the Dinosauria
Only large theropod dinosaurs with a skull length in excess of 1 metre evolved different eye socket shapes. Herbivorous dinosaurs such as Triceratops and Stegosaurus retained circular orbits. Picture credit: The University of Birmingham.

Dinosaur’s Evolved Different Orbit Shapes to Accommodate Stronger Bites

In the new study, University of Birmingham researchers examined the unusual, elliptical, keyhole-shaped or oval eye sockets found in predatory dinosaurs. They postulate that these orbit shapes could have evolved to help the skull absorb the impact as these carnivores attacked or fed on prey.

Author of the scientific paper, Dr Stephan Lautenschlager (Senior Lecturer for Palaeobiology at the University of Birmingham), analysed the shape of the eye sockets of around five hundred different dinosaurs and related species.

Dr Lautenschlager explained:

“The results show that only some dinosaurs had eye sockets that were elliptical or keyhole-shaped. However, all of those were large, carnivorous dinosaurs with skull lengths of one metre or more.”

Computer modelling was used to assess bite force stresses on skulls. The results demonstrated that skulls with a circular orbit were more prone to high stresses during biting.

Assessing the impact of orbit shape on skull stress.
Elliptical or keyhole-shaped orbits were better able to cope with the stresses on the skull generated by strong bite forces. The darker the shading the lower the bite force stress on that part of the skull. Picture credit: The University of Birmingham.

Accommodating Bite Force Stress

Stresses on the bones surrounding the eye were reduced when other non-circular orbit models were analysed in the computer tests. This suggests that large theropods evolved non-circular orbits to accommodate the higher skull stresses as their bites became more powerful.

The study also showed that most plant-eating species and juvenile individuals retained a circular eye socket. Only large carnivores adopted other morphologies.

T. rex skull labelled.
A diagram of a T. rex skull with the fenestrae in the top half of the skull labelled. The keyhole-shaped orbit is highlighted. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Skulls with non-circular orbits, such as the skull of Tyrannosaurus rex (above), are better able to cope with the stresses generated as the bite force increases.

A Reduction in Eyeball Size Compared to Skull Length

The research also demonstrated that as the skulls of theropods got larger, the relative size of the eyeball was reduced.

Dr Lautenschlager added:

“In these species, just the upper part of the eye socket was actually occupied by the eyeball. This also led to a relative reduction of eye size compared with skull size.”

If the eyeball of T. rex had increased at the same rate as the skull length so it remained in proportion, the eyes of Tyrannosaurus rex would have been up to 30 cm in diameter and would have weighed nearly twenty kilograms.

T. rex - what big eyes you've got!
If the eyes of T. rex had increased at the same rate as skull length, the eyes of Tyrannosaurus rex would have been up to 30 cm in diameter and would have weighed an estimated 20 kilograms. Whereas, based on fossil assessments the eyes of T. rex were around 13 cm diameter and weighed 2 kilograms. Picture credit: The University of Birmingham.

Think of a T. rex with eyes as big as footballs, rather than the true size of the eye about as big as a tennis ball.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Birmingham in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Functional and ecomorphological evolution of orbit shape in Mesozoic archosaurs is driven by body size and diet.” by S. Lautenschlager published in Communications Biology.

10 08, 2022

Preparations for Lingwulong

By | August 10th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Team members at Everything Dinosaur are busy making preparations for the arrival of the latest PNSO model shipment including the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model. This exciting, new Jurassic sauropod figure is expected to arrive at our UK warehouse in a few days and we have been busy finalising the Lingwulong fact sheet that will be sent out with sales of this model.

The Everything Dinosaur fact sheets include a scale drawing of the prehistoric animal. Our illustration of Lingwulong with a human figure providing the scale has been reproduced below.

Lingwulong scale drawing
A scale drawing of Lingwulong ready for the Everything Dinosaur fact sheet.

PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong

Measuring nearly forty-eight centimetres in length the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model is one of the largest prehistoric animal figures to be added by PNSO to their Age of Dinosaurs range for some time.

Palaeontologists are uncertain as to the actual size of this dicraeosaurid, (Superfamily: Diplodocoidea/Family: Dicraeosauridae). Size estimates vary with a consensus, based on the currently known fossil material coalescing around the 17-20-metre-long mark.

Named and described back in 2018 (Xu et al), Lingwulong is the first ever member of the Diplodocoidea discovered in Asia and also the oldest known to science. Its fossils (several individuals), coming from the Yanan Formation in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China. The strata are estimated to be around 175 to 168 million years old (late Toarcian to Bajocian faunal stages of the Jurassic).

PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model.
PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model.

An Eagerly Anticipated Jurassic Sauropod Figure

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Lingwulong is an eagerly anticipated Jurassic sauropod figure, it is one of the largest figures that PNSO have put into production over recent months, and we know that there are more new model announcements to come from PNSO.”

To read about the discovery and scientific description of Lingwulong shenqi: Lingwulong shenqi New Dinosaur Discovery from China.

The posters for the PNSO Chuanchuan Lingwulong model
Posters and booklet for the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model. The PNSO model will be supplied with an animal poster, a 64-page, full-colour booklet and of course, an Everything Dinosaur Lingwulong fact sheet.

The PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model should be in stock in a few days. Team members will ensure that Everything Dinosaur customers who requested to be contacted, will be notified when this new dinosaur figure arrives.

To view the extensive range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models and Figures.

9 08, 2022

Royal Mail Postal Strikes (Summer 2022)

By | August 9th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur have been informed that the forthcoming industrial action at Royal Mail will lead to delays in parcel deliveries both in the UK and overseas. Our customers can be assured that Everything Dinosaur team members will be putting in place measures to protect customers and to minimise disruption as much as is possible.

Team members working hard to despatch parcels.
Everything Dinosaur working hard to manage the despatch of parcels during the period of industrial action at Royal Mail. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Following a ballot amongst its members back in July, the Communication Workers Union (CWU) threatened strike action.

Royal Mail has issued the following statement:

“The Communication Workers Union has informed Royal Mail that they will call upon their members to undertake strike action on the following dates: 26th and 31st August and 8th and 9th September 2022. Royal Mail believes there are no grounds for industrial action. Royal Mail is ready to talk further with the CWU to try to avert damaging industrial action, but it must be about both change and pay.”

Contingency Plans in Place

We have already put in plans to try to mitigate the impact of the proposed industrial action. We intend to implement our Christmas period action plan. This means that we will work longer hours including Sundays to ensure orders are picked, prepared and packed as quickly as we can so that they can be sent out as soon as Royal Mail collections commence.

Dinosaur parcels being loaded
Everything Dinosaur works with several courier companies not just Royal Mail and will be exploring how we can support our delivery service in the light of the announcement of industrial action by the Communication Workers Union (summer/autumn 2022). Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We have an exceptionally good relationship with all the delivery companies that we work with. We have gone out of our way to build effective, strong communication between ourselves and our delivery partners. We have already implemented an action plan to help mitigate this disruption and to minimise any inconvenience that customers might face.”

The proposed CWU strike days:

  • Friday 26th August (Friday before the UK Bank Holiday on Monday 29th August).
  • Wednesday 31st August.
  • Thursday 8th September.
  • Friday 9th September.

CWU must provide Royal Mail with 14 days’ notice prior to any other strike action.

Buy Early – Consider Christmas Purchases

The advice to customers is to buy a few days earlier than they normally would. Please allow extra time for deliveries to be made. If the industrial action continues into the autumn, then it will start to have an impact on Christmas deliveries, so the clear message is shop early for Christmas.

Last year, many retailers had problems obtaining stock in the important sales period in the run up to the festive season. These problems were largely caused by issues with global logistics. Customers were advised to buy early to avoid disappointment, this advice is still relevant. There are on-going problems with global logistics which are likely to be exacerbated by industrial action at Felixstowe port. With potential disruption to mail services, it is advisable and sensible to shop early.

For further information, advice and assistance: Email Everything Dinosaur.

7 08, 2022

Thoughts from a Customer

By | August 7th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

A model collector and fan of dinosaurs praised Everything Dinosaur team members for their great customer service and for providing prehistoric animal figures that would otherwise be difficult to obtain.

Having supplied Everything Dinosaur with a detailed review of his recent acquisition – the Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri model, William thanked Everything Dinosaur team members for their hard work.

Dino Hazard Irritator with Prey
The theropod Irritator challengeri is associated with the Romualdo Formation whilst the lungfish (Equinoxiodus alcantarensis) is associated with the geologically younger Alcântara Formation. A dinosaur model collector reviewed the figure and praised Everything Dinosaur for their customer service and their willingness to bring into stock difficult to obtain prehistoric animal replicas. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

The dinosaur model reviewer praised Dino Hazard’s Irritator challengeri figure commenting that it was:

“One of the most accurate Spinosauridae figures on the market.”

To read the detailed customer review of the Dino Hazard Irritator dinosaur model: Collector Reviews the YVY Dino Hazard Irritator Model.

A Note of Caution

The reviewer also reminded fellow model collectors to only purchase from official stockists such as Everything Dinosaur. By purchasing through a reputable company such as the UK-based Everything Dinosaur, collectors could be assured that the model makers were being properly supported and this would help them with future product development.

Thanking Everything Dinosaur

William thanked Everything Dinosaur team members for their hard work and dedication.

He added:

“For the legion of paleo-figure collectors we truly value all you have done and all you will do for us in the future. During these uncertain times you were always there for us during the pandemic. From searching the leading brands to all the tireless efforts to get the stock from suppliers to your warehouse to our front doors.”

Thank you Everything Dinosaur.
Thank you Everything Dinosaur for your excellent product range and fantastic customer service. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

The reviewer praised team members for their willingness to invest in product safety tests which permitted the importation of prehistoric animal models and figures.

He commented that:

“Purchasing from Everything Dinosaur is fast, safe, secure and no nonsense.”

The level and amount of recycled packaging was highlighted along with speedy and reliable delivery times.

William went onto state:

“If required, they [Everything Dinosaur] will delay posting your order until you wish it should you be away a few days, or no one will be at home to receive the parcel. The company also offers a wide range of delivery options including Royal Mail and courier services all very fairly priced.”

The fast deliver times were noted with some parcels being received in just 24-hours.

Our thanks to William for his kind words and to all our customers that have provided the company with feedback.

To view the extensive range of prehistoric animal models and replicas available from Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

4 08, 2022

Collector Reviews YVY Dino Hazard Irritator

By | August 4th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Our thanks to dinosaur fan and prehistoric animal model collector William who sent into Everything Dinosaur a review of the YVY Dino Hazard Irritator dinosaur model.

The Irritator challengeri dinosaur model
An Everything Dinosaur team member holds the Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri dinosaur model, which in turn is holding in its claws the replica of a lungfish (Equinoxiodus alcantarensis) which is supplied as an accessory with this dinosaur figure. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

William Reviews Irritator

William began his review by explaining that the Dino Hazard brand was the brainchild of the brilliant
Brazilian palaeontologist Tito Aureliano who conceived the idea of a group of bold palaeontologists travelling back in time to explore prehistoric South America.

The reviewer also noted that collectors would not have been able to purchase one of these figures without Everything Dinosaur undertaking product safety tests. As far as we and the reviewer are aware, Everything Dinosaur is the only company in the world to have undertaken product testing, obtaining a report on general product safety.

Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri - a close-up view of the head
A close-up view of the articulated jaw on the Dino Hazard Irritator dinosaur model.

Head Sculpt

William commented that:

“In my mind’s eye this is how I see the Irritator challengeri and all other Spinosauridae – living animals going about their lives. All the credit and our thanks must be heaped upon Hugo Cafasso the artist and owner of YVY figures, it is he the maestro who created a real theropod.”

He added that there was no shrink wrapping and the replica had a full set of accurate conical Spinosauridae teeth. The ear sculpt was praised and the fully articulated jaw highlighted. The head crest was stated as being “the cherry on top of any Spinosauridae figure.”

An Accurate Slender Skull

The reviewer stated that the slender skull was accurate with its retracted nostrils positioned high on the snout and the red-coloured eyes were singled out for praise.

Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri product packaging.
The Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri product packaging. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

The Main Body of the Review

William explains that in his view the designers of the Irritator replica understood the Spinosauridae body plan, although he states that the neural spines would have been more subtle, but the overall impression created is pleasing to the eye. The model has been given a cloaca and the broad tail, reminiscent of recent interpretations of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus is commented upon.

The Model’s Limbs

William states that the forelimbs are positioned correctly and unlike the abelisaurids and tyrannosaurids, the Spinosauridae retained their Megalosauroidea heritage of a three fingered hand with three powerful claws.

He added:

“No worries about hurting yourself or others as the claws are not sharp”.

The defined musculature or the theropod’s legs are highlighted and the hindlimbs are praised for their accuracy.

Summarising the model, William exclaimed:

“With all elements coming together we have very dynamic dinosaur on a dynamic diorama”.

Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri box contents
The Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri is supplied with an optional display base and a lungfish prey item.

Irritator challengeri – Colour and Texture

William remarked upon the red eyes, and the facial markings. He praised the muted gunmetal grey wash and the base colouration. He commented that the careful painting of the claws and teeth lent a maturity to the figure.

When discussing the model’s skin texture the reviewer reflected:

“The skin textures are amazing but further heightened by the folds and creases of the skin and the wrinkles from the throat to the ripples in the thigh muscles. The entire figure is masterpiece! You realise how much time, love and effort it takes to create an accurate sculpt of a true likeness of a Spinosauridae.”

As with previous reviews William listed the model’s measurements:

Scale: 1:20.
Length: 14.5 inches.
Height: 3.5 inches.

Product Packaging and Accessories

In his detailed model review, William expressed his admiration for the product packaging and explained that the replica and base depicted a dinosaur traversing wet sand. Footprints in the base provided a guide to where the model should be placed.

Irritator challengeri dinosaur model on the Everything Dinosaur turntable
Sold under the brand Dino Hazard the Irritator challengeri dinosaur model comes complete with an optional display base and a replica of a lungfish. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

He described the lungfish model supplied with the dinosaur as a “little jewel”, commenting that it was highly detailed and a fantastic replica of an Equinoxiodus.

William also provided some details about Irritator challengeri that he had researched.

Classification:
Superfamily: Megalosauroidea.
Clade: Megalosauria.
Family: Spinosauridae.
Subfamily: Spinosaurinae.
Genus: Irritator.

Time Period:
Early Cretaceous 110 Million Years Ago.

Location:
North-eastern Brazil (from Santana do Cariri).

William also outlined how this theropod was awarded the genus name “Irritator”, explaining some of the problems associated with the acquisition, preparation and identification of this dinosaur.

He remarked that the specimen number SMNS 58022 became the designated holotype for I. challengeri in February 1996. He added that the holotype material represents a sub-adult animal so size estimates may have to be revised if fossils of a mature, adult animal are found.

William Provides an Estimate for the Size of I. challengeri

Weight: 2-3 tons.
Length: 27 feet.
Height: 6.5 feet.

He also commented upon the palaeoenvironment describing it as a tropical ecosystem with extensive waterways patrolled by several different kinds of spinosaurids. These animals would have hunted along the banks of the rivers catching fish, but also scavenging carcasses and perhaps catching the occasional pterosaur.

Our thanks to William for providing Everything Dinosaur with a comprehensive dinosaur model review.

To view the Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri figure and to explore the extensive range of prehistoric animal models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

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