All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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17 08, 2022

Sinopliosaurus – Theropod or Pliosaur?

By | August 17th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

With the announcement of the new PNSO spinosaurid figure Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus earlier this week (Monday, 15th August), team members at Everything Dinosaur thought it might be helpful to outline the taxonomic history of this enigmatic theropod. Fragmentary fossils that led to the establishment of the Sinopliosaurus genus were originally thought to represent a marine reptile. One that had lived in a huge freshwater lake during the Early Jurassic around 180 million years ago (Toarcian faunal stage).

Everything Dinosaur expects this dinosaur model to be in stock in the autumn.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus dinosaur model.
PNSO are adding a second member of the Spinosauridae family to their mid-size model range. Joining Essien the Spinosaurus is Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus. The taxonomic history of Sinopliosaurus is somewhat complicated.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus – an Explanation

Fragmentary bones including three vertebrae, a tooth, elements from the hips (the ischium) and a femur (thigh bone) found in Lower Jurassic (Toarcian faunal stage) Ziliujing Formation exposures at Weiyuan (Sichuan Province, China) were thought to represent a freshwater pliosaur. Although very little of the skeleton was known, the fossil bones that were found were preserved in three-dimensions and not flattened and the pliosaur species Sinopliosaurus weiyuanensis was confidently erected (1944). The femur for example, was described as being of the “usual Plesiosaurian type”, robust, rather squat and not elongated. The ischium was noted as being reminiscent of the Late Cretaceous Canadian plesiosaur Leurospondylus ultimus, which had been erected by Barnum Brown in 1913. L. ultimus itself is a disputed taxon, classified as “incertae sedis”. This marine reptile was described based on fossil material most likely from a juvenile and the material might represent an elasmosaurid.

The taxonomic status of Leurospondylus ultimus remains unresolved.

Elasmosaurus scale drawing
The Elasmosaurus scale drawing commissioned by Everything Dinosaur as the company’s fact sheet was updated. When Sinopliosaurus weiyuanensis was described, the ischium was thought to closely resemble the hip bones associated with Leurospondylus (L. ultimus). This helped to confirm the diagnosis that S. weiyuanensis fossil material represented a marine reptile – a member of the Plesiosauria clade.

The genus name (Sinopliosaurus) means “Chinese more lizard”, reflecting the assumed close taxonomic relationship with pliosaurs found elsewhere in the world.

Who Named the Pliosaurus Genus?

It was the English anatomist Sir Richard Owen who first used the genus Pliosaurus (Pliosaurus brachydeirus) back in 1841. Owen mistakenly believed that Pliosaurus was “more” closely related to “saurians” (including crocodilians) than it was to Plesiosaurus.

Pliosaurus scale drawing.
A scale drawing of a Pliosaurus. Fossils from the Lower Jurassic Ziliujing Formation and later fossil discoveries from the geologically much younger Xinlong Formation (sometimes referred to as the Napai Formation), were originally thought to represent a freshwater pliosaur. Only later did some of these fossils become ascribed to a species of spinosaurid theropod dinosaur. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Sinopliosaurus weiyuanensis (Chung Chien Young) 1944

The scientific description of S. weiyuanensis was published in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of China in 1944 by the eminent, Chinese palaeontologist and zoologist C.C. (Chung Chien) Young. Regarded as the “Father of Chinese vertebrate palaeontology”, his diagnosis was not challenged or questioned.

Spinosaurid fossils from Asia were unknown, the only substantial research into this enigmatic family of dinosaurs had been taking place in Germany (Stromer – Spinosaurus aegyptiacus). As the fossils were similar to those fossils ascribed to pliosaurs, it was thought that these Chinese fossils too, also represented a marine reptile.

Sinopliosaurus fusuiensis (Hou et al) 1975

Five isolated teeth from the Early Cretaceous Xinlong Formation (sometimes referred to as the Napai Formation) found in Fusui County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (South China), were described by Chinese palaeontologist Hou Lian-Hai and colleagues and a second species of Sinopliosaurus was erected – S. fusuiensis (1975).

The strata associated with these fossils is difficult to date accurately, but the consensus is that these sediments were deposited around 120 to 100 million years ago (Aptian-Albian faunal stage of the Early Cretaceous). The fossils ascribed to S. fusuiensis were around sixty million years younger than the fossil material associated with S. weiyuanensis.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus has an articulated jaw.
PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus has an articulated jaw. The genus was originally erected under the presumption that the fossil material including isolated teeth represented a pliosaur (marine reptile).

The Emergence of Asian Spinosaurs – Siamosaurus suteethorni

Fossil teeth collected from the Lower Cretaceous Sao Khua Formation (Barremian faunal stage) in north-eastern Thailand by a joint Thai/French team in the early 1980s led to the conclusion that they represented an unusual theropod dinosaur or possibly an, as yet undescribed crocodyliform. A reassessment of the fossil material in 1986 led to the establishment of the Asian spinosaurid species Siamosaurus suteethorni. Subsequently, other fossil material has been described and assigned to this genus, principally fossils excavated from the slightly geologically younger Khok Kruat Formation of Thailand.

Siamosaurus was the first Asian spinosaur to be described and following its scientific description (Buffetaut and Ingavat, 1986), teeth and other material found in Asia has been reassigned to the Spinosauridae.

In 2008, Buffetaut and colleagues published a scientific paper (Cambridge University Press), that challenged the placement of Sinopliosaurus fusuiensis as a marine reptile. It was concluded that the conical teeth assigned to S. fusuiensis were not typical of a member of the Plesiosauria. Specifically, it was noted that these teeth bear carinae (sharp edges) on the plane of the crown’s curvature, a characteristic not seen in Plesiosauria teeth. Buffetaut et al subsequently re-described the material and stated that the teeth came from a spinosaurid theropod closely allied to Siamosaurus suteethorni.

The exact taxonomic position of S. fusuiensis remains unresolved, although the discovery of potential spinosaurid fossil material in Japan and the naming of the spinosaurid Ichthyovenator (I. laosensis) by Allain et al in 2012 confirms the presence of this enigmatic family of theropod dinosaurs in the Early Cretaceous of Asia.

“Fish Hunter” from Laos. A scale drawing of Ichthyovenator laosensis.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus

The PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus (S. fusuiensis), is expected in stock at Everything Dinosaur in the autumn of 2022.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus landscape view
The PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus is depicted walking close to a river. Fossils now ascribed to this theropod come from a fluvial/lacustrine palaeoenvironment (Xinlong Formation).

To view the wide range of PNSO models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur including Essien the Spinosaurus models: PNSO Spinosaurus and Other Prehistoric Animal Figures.

16 08, 2022

Prehistoric Animal Models from PNSO Feature in Newsletter

By | August 16th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

The PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong and six other PNSO prehistoric animal figures feature in the latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter. Lingwulong, the first replica of this Chinese diplodocoid dinosaur to be made by a mainstream manufacturer has arrived in stock at Everything Dinosaur along with replenishment stocks of other PNSO prehistoric animal models in the latest shipment to reach Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse.

PNSO Lingwulong features in customer newsletter.
The new for summer 2022 PNSO Lingwulong sauropod model features in the latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter.

PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong

This large model (the figure measures over forty-seven centimetres in length), is a replica of the dicraeosaurid from the Middle Jurassic of China. It is the earliest known diplodocoid and the first of this type of sauropod dinosaur to be reported from Asia.

PNSO Kronosaurus and the Stegosaurus Pair
Fresh supplies of the Kronosaurus figure (Jeff the Kronosaurus) and the stegosaur pair (Biber and Rook) have arrived at the Everything Dinosaur warehouse.

PNSO Kronosaurus and Biber and Rook (Stegosaurus Pair)

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have been busy unloading and checking the latest PNSO product delivery. The PNSO Jeff the Kronosaurus and the stegosaur pair (Biber and Rook) are now back in stock. These figures would make a welcome addition to the model collection of a prehistoric animal fan.

To join the subscription list for the free Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter: Email Everything Dinosaur.

PNSO T. rex and Carnotaurus models feature in newsletter.
A fantastic pair of short-armed theropod dinosaurs. Wilson the T. rex (latest version) and Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model are now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

PNSO Wilson the T. rex and Domingo the Carnotaurus

The shipment also contained Wilson the T. rex dinosaur model (latest version) and the popular PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus figure.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur welcomed these fine examples of a tyrannosaurid and an abelisaurid back into stock at the company’s warehouse.

PNSO Nick the Ceratosaurus and Brook the Ophthalmosaurus feature in company newsletter.
The huge Nick the Ceratosaurus and the equally impressive Brook the Ophthalmosaurus are also back in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Favourites Back into Stock Too

The enormous Nick the Ceratosaurus dinosaur model is back in stock. Brook (the not quite so big but still an impressive 48 cm long), Ophthalmosaurus is also available once more.

The spokesperson confirmed that Everything Dinosaur was committed to stocking older PNSO products as well as the latest additions to the PNSO Age of Dinosaurs model series.

To view the huge range of PNSO models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: PNSO Sauropod Models and Prehistoric Animal Figures.

15 08, 2022

PNSO to Add a Sinopliosaurus Model

By | August 15th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

PNSO have announced that they will be adding a replica of the Chinese spinosaurid Sinopliosaurus to their range of mid-sized prehistoric animal models. This new for 2022 dinosaur model is expected in stock at Everything Dinosaur in the autumn (2022).

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus model measurements.
PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus measures 29.3 cm long and stands 8.5 cm high.

Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus

Say hello to Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus, a genus of spinosaurid dinosaur with a rather convoluted and complicated taxonomic history. This is the second member of the Spinosauridae family to be added to the company’s mid-sized model range after Essien the Spinosaurus was announced back in quarter 4 of 2020.

The Sinopliosaurus measures an impressive 29.3 cm long and it stands around 8.5 cm high. As with other figures in the PNSO mid-size model range, it has no declared scale (helpful as the size estimates for Sinopliosaurus are speculative).

It has been given a deep, broad tail, in keeping with some of the latest research associated with the Spinosauridae, specifically Spinosaurus aegyptiacus.

PNSO Sinopliosaurus model.
The broad, deep tail of Sinopliosaurus can be seen in this image of the new PNSO dinosaur model.

Spinosaurid Supplied with Posters and a Full-colour Booklet

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that this exciting, new dinosaur figure would be in stock in the autumn and that it would be supplied with a 64-page, fully illustrated booklet and an animal poster. The model would also have an articulated lower jaw.

PNSO Sinopliosaurus supplied with poster and booklet.
The PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus dinosaur model is supplied with an animal poster and a 64-page, full-colour illustrated booklet.

Spectacular Spinosaurid – Sinopliosaurus

Known from highly fragmentary fossils, once thought to represent a pliosaur (marine reptile), Sinopliosaurus (S. fusuiensis) was named and scientifically described in 1975 (Hou, Yeh and Zhao), but eventually assigned to the Spinosauridae family when evidence of Asian spinosaurids emerged.

It is the only spinosaur described to date from China. The spectacular Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus will have an articulated lower jaw.

PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus has an articulated jaw.
PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus has an articulated jaw. The genus was originally erected under the presumption that the fossil material including isolated teeth represented a pliosaur (marine reptile).

Expected in Stock – Autumn 2022

The PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus dinosaur model is expected to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in the autumn (2022).

Why does a spinosaurid have a name that sounds like Pliosaurus – a genus of marine reptile? The taxonomic history of this theropod is both convoluted and complicated. It involves Early Jurassic fossils, Sir Richard Owen and his mistakes, Early Cretaceous fossil material, excavations in Thailand and Laos plus a lot of confusion. We will post up an explanation on Wednesday 17th August (2022), that hopefully, sheds some light on all this.

To view the range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Age of Dinosaurs (PNSO).

12 08, 2022

PNSO Lingwulong Dinosaur Model in Stock

By | August 12th, 2022|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

The PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur. The latest PNSO new for 2022 prehistoric animal model has arrived at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse. Team members at the UK-based mail order company have been busy contacting all those customers who requested that they be alerted when this new Jurassic sauropod figure arrived.

PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong in stock at Everything Dinosaur.
The PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model has arrived at Everything Dinosaur. Team members inspect boxes and check contents prior to booking this new for 2022 sauropod figure into stock.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur reported that the cartons containing the PNSO Lingwulong would be checked over before all the boxes were put on pallets once again and stored in the PNSO designated area of the company’s warehouse.

The picture (above) shows some cartons in one of the packing rooms having been opened and the contents checked over.

The posters for the PNSO Chuanchuan Lingwulong model
Posters and booklet for the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model. The new for 2022 PNSO diplodocoid figure is supplied with a prehistoric animal poster and a full-colour, 64-page booklet. A QR code can be scanned which allows access to a short video that explains how this new dinosaur model was created.

Model Measurements

The Lingwulong model is quite large, it measures around 47.5 cm in length and stands approximately 13.5 cm tall.

To view the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model and the rest of the figures in the extensive PNSO prehistoric animal model range, take a look at the PNSO section of Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: PNSO Lingwulong and Other Jurassic Dinosaur Models.

10 08, 2022

Preparations for Lingwulong

By | August 10th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Team members at Everything Dinosaur are busy making preparations for the arrival of the latest PNSO model shipment including the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model. This exciting, new Jurassic sauropod figure is expected to arrive at our UK warehouse in a few days and we have been busy finalising the Lingwulong fact sheet that will be sent out with sales of this model.

The Everything Dinosaur fact sheets include a scale drawing of the prehistoric animal. Our illustration of Lingwulong with a human figure providing the scale has been reproduced below.

Lingwulong scale drawing
A scale drawing of Lingwulong ready for the Everything Dinosaur fact sheet.

PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong

Measuring nearly forty-eight centimetres in length the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model is one of the largest prehistoric animal figures to be added by PNSO to their Age of Dinosaurs range for some time.

Palaeontologists are uncertain as to the actual size of this dicraeosaurid, (Superfamily: Diplodocoidea/Family: Dicraeosauridae). Size estimates vary with a consensus, based on the currently known fossil material coalescing around the 17-20-metre-long mark.

Named and described back in 2018 (Xu et al), Lingwulong is the first ever member of the Diplodocoidea discovered in Asia and also the oldest known to science. Its fossils (several individuals), coming from the Yanan Formation in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China. The strata are estimated to be around 175 to 168 million years old (late Toarcian to Bajocian faunal stages of the Jurassic).

PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model.
PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model.

An Eagerly Anticipated Jurassic Sauropod Figure

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Lingwulong is an eagerly anticipated Jurassic sauropod figure, it is one of the largest figures that PNSO have put into production over recent months, and we know that there are more new model announcements to come from PNSO.”

To read about the discovery and scientific description of Lingwulong shenqi: Lingwulong shenqi New Dinosaur Discovery from China.

The posters for the PNSO Chuanchuan Lingwulong model
Posters and booklet for the PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model. The PNSO model will be supplied with an animal poster, a 64-page, full-colour booklet and of course, an Everything Dinosaur Lingwulong fact sheet.

The PNSO Chuanchuan the Lingwulong dinosaur model should be in stock in a few days. Team members will ensure that Everything Dinosaur customers who requested to be contacted, will be notified when this new dinosaur figure arrives.

To view the extensive range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models and Figures.

7 08, 2022

Thoughts from a Customer

By | August 7th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

A model collector and fan of dinosaurs praised Everything Dinosaur team members for their great customer service and for providing prehistoric animal figures that would otherwise be difficult to obtain.

Having supplied Everything Dinosaur with a detailed review of his recent acquisition – the Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri model, William thanked Everything Dinosaur team members for their hard work.

Dino Hazard Irritator with Prey
The theropod Irritator challengeri is associated with the Romualdo Formation whilst the lungfish (Equinoxiodus alcantarensis) is associated with the geologically younger Alcântara Formation. A dinosaur model collector reviewed the figure and praised Everything Dinosaur for their customer service and their willingness to bring into stock difficult to obtain prehistoric animal replicas. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

The dinosaur model reviewer praised Dino Hazard’s Irritator challengeri figure commenting that it was:

“One of the most accurate Spinosauridae figures on the market.”

To read the detailed customer review of the Dino Hazard Irritator dinosaur model: Collector Reviews the YVY Dino Hazard Irritator Model.

A Note of Caution

The reviewer also reminded fellow model collectors to only purchase from official stockists such as Everything Dinosaur. By purchasing through a reputable company such as the UK-based Everything Dinosaur, collectors could be assured that the model makers were being properly supported and this would help them with future product development.

Thanking Everything Dinosaur

William thanked Everything Dinosaur team members for their hard work and dedication.

He added:

“For the legion of paleo-figure collectors we truly value all you have done and all you will do for us in the future. During these uncertain times you were always there for us during the pandemic. From searching the leading brands to all the tireless efforts to get the stock from suppliers to your warehouse to our front doors.”

Thank you Everything Dinosaur.
Thank you Everything Dinosaur for your excellent product range and fantastic customer service. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

The reviewer praised team members for their willingness to invest in product safety tests which permitted the importation of prehistoric animal models and figures.

He commented that:

“Purchasing from Everything Dinosaur is fast, safe, secure and no nonsense.”

The level and amount of recycled packaging was highlighted along with speedy and reliable delivery times.

William went onto state:

“If required, they [Everything Dinosaur] will delay posting your order until you wish it should you be away a few days, or no one will be at home to receive the parcel. The company also offers a wide range of delivery options including Royal Mail and courier services all very fairly priced.”

The fast deliver times were noted with some parcels being received in just 24-hours.

Our thanks to William for his kind words and to all our customers that have provided the company with feedback.

To view the extensive range of prehistoric animal models and replicas available from Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

4 08, 2022

Collector Reviews YVY Dino Hazard Irritator

By | August 4th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Our thanks to dinosaur fan and prehistoric animal model collector William who sent into Everything Dinosaur a review of the YVY Dino Hazard Irritator dinosaur model.

The Irritator challengeri dinosaur model
An Everything Dinosaur team member holds the Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri dinosaur model, which in turn is holding in its claws the replica of a lungfish (Equinoxiodus alcantarensis) which is supplied as an accessory with this dinosaur figure. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

William Reviews Irritator

William began his review by explaining that the Dino Hazard brand was the brainchild of the brilliant
Brazilian palaeontologist Tito Aureliano who conceived the idea of a group of bold palaeontologists travelling back in time to explore prehistoric South America.

The reviewer also noted that collectors would not have been able to purchase one of these figures without Everything Dinosaur undertaking product safety tests. As far as we and the reviewer are aware, Everything Dinosaur is the only company in the world to have undertaken product testing, obtaining a report on general product safety.

Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri - a close-up view of the head
A close-up view of the articulated jaw on the Dino Hazard Irritator dinosaur model.

Head Sculpt

William commented that:

“In my mind’s eye this is how I see the Irritator challengeri and all other Spinosauridae – living animals going about their lives. All the credit and our thanks must be heaped upon Hugo Cafasso the artist and owner of YVY figures, it is he the maestro who created a real theropod.”

He added that there was no shrink wrapping and the replica had a full set of accurate conical Spinosauridae teeth. The ear sculpt was praised and the fully articulated jaw highlighted. The head crest was stated as being “the cherry on top of any Spinosauridae figure.”

An Accurate Slender Skull

The reviewer stated that the slender skull was accurate with its retracted nostrils positioned high on the snout and the red-coloured eyes were singled out for praise.

Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri product packaging.
The Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri product packaging. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

The Main Body of the Review

William explains that in his view the designers of the Irritator replica understood the Spinosauridae body plan, although he states that the neural spines would have been more subtle, but the overall impression created is pleasing to the eye. The model has been given a cloaca and the broad tail, reminiscent of recent interpretations of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus is commented upon.

The Model’s Limbs

William states that the forelimbs are positioned correctly and unlike the abelisaurids and tyrannosaurids, the Spinosauridae retained their Megalosauroidea heritage of a three fingered hand with three powerful claws.

He added:

“No worries about hurting yourself or others as the claws are not sharp”.

The defined musculature or the theropod’s legs are highlighted and the hindlimbs are praised for their accuracy.

Summarising the model, William exclaimed:

“With all elements coming together we have very dynamic dinosaur on a dynamic diorama”.

Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri box contents
The Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri is supplied with an optional display base and a lungfish prey item.

Irritator challengeri – Colour and Texture

William remarked upon the red eyes, and the facial markings. He praised the muted gunmetal grey wash and the base colouration. He commented that the careful painting of the claws and teeth lent a maturity to the figure.

When discussing the model’s skin texture the reviewer reflected:

“The skin textures are amazing but further heightened by the folds and creases of the skin and the wrinkles from the throat to the ripples in the thigh muscles. The entire figure is masterpiece! You realise how much time, love and effort it takes to create an accurate sculpt of a true likeness of a Spinosauridae.”

As with previous reviews William listed the model’s measurements:

Scale: 1:20.
Length: 14.5 inches.
Height: 3.5 inches.

Product Packaging and Accessories

In his detailed model review, William expressed his admiration for the product packaging and explained that the replica and base depicted a dinosaur traversing wet sand. Footprints in the base provided a guide to where the model should be placed.

Irritator challengeri dinosaur model on the Everything Dinosaur turntable
Sold under the brand Dino Hazard the Irritator challengeri dinosaur model comes complete with an optional display base and a replica of a lungfish. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

He described the lungfish model supplied with the dinosaur as a “little jewel”, commenting that it was highly detailed and a fantastic replica of an Equinoxiodus.

William also provided some details about Irritator challengeri that he had researched.

Classification:
Superfamily: Megalosauroidea.
Clade: Megalosauria.
Family: Spinosauridae.
Subfamily: Spinosaurinae.
Genus: Irritator.

Time Period:
Early Cretaceous 110 Million Years Ago.

Location:
North-eastern Brazil (from Santana do Cariri).

William also outlined how this theropod was awarded the genus name “Irritator”, explaining some of the problems associated with the acquisition, preparation and identification of this dinosaur.

He remarked that the specimen number SMNS 58022 became the designated holotype for I. challengeri in February 1996. He added that the holotype material represents a sub-adult animal so size estimates may have to be revised if fossils of a mature, adult animal are found.

William Provides an Estimate for the Size of I. challengeri

Weight: 2-3 tons.
Length: 27 feet.
Height: 6.5 feet.

He also commented upon the palaeoenvironment describing it as a tropical ecosystem with extensive waterways patrolled by several different kinds of spinosaurids. These animals would have hunted along the banks of the rivers catching fish, but also scavenging carcasses and perhaps catching the occasional pterosaur.

Our thanks to William for providing Everything Dinosaur with a comprehensive dinosaur model review.

To view the Dino Hazard Irritator challengeri figure and to explore the extensive range of prehistoric animal models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

3 08, 2022

A Papo Prehistoric Animal Banner

By | August 3rd, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur team members were sent a dinosaur themed banner by our chums at Papo. The French manufacturer emailed over the Papo dinosaurs banner, can you name the trio of dinosaur models featured on the image?

Papo Les Dinosaures banner.
Papo of France kindly sent Everything Dinosaur a dinosaur themed product banner. Can you name the trio of dinosaur models featured in the Papo image?

Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models

The French manufacturer has spent more than twenty-five years creating an inspirational range of models and figures. In total, Papo currently produces more than six hundred replicas. The company’s prehistoric animals, the “Les Dinosaures” range consists of around fifty figures including the recently released Papo Protoceratops.

Papo Protoceratops model
Papo Protoceratops model in lateral view. The Protoceratops figure was the first of the new prehistoric animal models introduced into the “Les Dinosaures” range in 2022.

The Papo Protoceratops Dinosaur Model

Papo has added several horned dinosaur figures to their model range. The latest addition is a replica of “first horned face” – Protoceratops. The model measures sixteen centimetres in length and the top of that delicately painted neck frill stands some eight centimetres high. The Papo Protoceratops has an articulated jaw.

The Papo Protoceratops in anterior view
Papo Protoceratops in anterior view. The attractive and very striking eyespots depicted on the dinosaur’s head shield can be seen when the model is photographed in anterior view.

Protoceratops is one of the most extensively studied of all the dinosaur genera. Ironically, the first fossilised remains of this little plant-eater were found a hundred years ago (1922). It is appropriate for Papo to introduce a replica of “first horned face” to mark the centenary of this dinosaur’s discovery.

Protoceratops (P. andrewsi) was scientifically described in 1923 (Granger and Gregory).

Papo Dinosaur Model Retirements

Like all the other model and figure manufacturers, Papo are constantly updating and changing the range of replicas they offer. With the addition of the Papo Protoceratops comes news that another horned dinosaur model, the red Papo Styracosaurus model is being retired and withdrawn from production.

Papo Styracosaurus dinosaur model.
The original Papo Styracosaurus model was released in 2011 and has been officially retired in 2022. It will be replaced by a new, green colour variant of Styracosaurus.

Originally released in 2011, the red Papo Styracosaurus dinosaur model is heading for retirement and is now officially out of production. This figure is due to be replaced by a green colour variant. A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that stocks of the green Papo Styracosaurus would be available shortly.

Papo Styracosaurus dinosaur model (new colour variant)
The new for 2022 Papo Styracosaurus colour variant. The green colour variant will replace the red Styracosaurus dinosaur model, which has now been retired.

Papo Model Fans and Collectors

Papo has built up a strong following within the prehistoric animal model collecting community. There are many Papo model fans and collectors who champion this product range and the prehistoric animal models therein.

To view the range of Papo “Les Dinosaures” models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

1 08, 2022

Praising Papo Megaloceros from Hungary

By | August 1st, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The Papo Megaloceros model was introduced in the autumn of 2020. A stunning model of the majestic member of the Cervidae, which is also referred to as the “giant elk” or the “Irish elk”, the Megaloceros was our favourite new Papo figure that year.

A Papo model fan from Hungary contacted Everything Dinosaur about this prehistoric animal.

The Papo Megaloceros Model
Papo Megaloceros model. This figure was one of six new models introduced by Papo in 2020 and the only prehistoric mammal. The models introduced by Papo in 2020 – a Giganotosaurus figure, Chilesaurus, Parasaurolophus and feathered Velociraptor (new colour variants) and a replica of the bone-headed dinosaur Stygimoloch.

Megaloceros – Official Fossil of the Year in Hungary

Our thanks to Valentin from Hungary who emailed Everything Dinosaur to confirm that his Papo Megaloceros model had arrived. It seems that Megaloceros has been declared the official fossil of the year for Hungary (2022). Despite being commonly referred to as the “Irish elk”, Megaloceros its range was not restricted to Ireland, nor was it related to the extant elk (Cervus canadensis) or indeed the modern Moose (Alces alces).

The Megaloceros genus had an extensive geographical range from China to Ireland and several species have been erected.

Papo Megaloceros model.
The new for 2020 Papo Megaloceros figure is looking very regal. Megaloceros has been declared the official fossil of the year (2022) in Hungary.

A Magnificent Ice Age Animal

Valentin emailed Everything Dinosaur stating:

“As far as I know, this is the only model made of this magnificent Ice Age animal – and what a beautiful one it is! The huge antlers of a male Megaloceros give him a really authoritative, majestic appearance, which is perfectly reproduced by this figure. The only thing I would have to complain about is the painting (the brown colour of the hump above his shoulders seemed a little unnatural to me), but apart from this minor flaw, it’s really beautiful. The giant deer became the official Fossil of the Year in Hungary in 2022, so it’s a perfect start to my collection! Totally recommended!”

Papo Megaloceros model.
The Papo Megaloceros figure.

Praise for Everything Dinosaur

Valentin praised Everything Dinosaur commenting:

“And to say a word or two about the delivery itself: my shipment arrived in a few days, fortunately completely intact! Shortly after placing my order, I received an email with a link that I could use to track my package. A good example to follow! Thank you very much, guys!”

Our thanks to Valentin for contacting Everything Dinosaur.

To view the range of Papo prehistoric animal models available: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

16 07, 2022

The New for 2022 Papo Protoceratops

By | July 16th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The new for 2022 Papo Protoceratops dinosaur model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur. This long-awaited replica of “first horned face”, the first of the new for 2022 prehistoric animal models from Papo is now available.

Papo Protoceratops in left lateral.
The Papo Protoceratops in left lateral view. This model of an early horned dinosaur has an articulated lower jaw.

Papo Protoceratops Dinosaur Model

The Papo Protoceratops dinosaur model is around sixteen centimetres long. The model stands about eight centimetres high when measured from the top of that impressive head shield. Everything Dinosaur announced that this figure would be produced and made available this year (2022), back in the late autumn of 2021.

The Papo Protoceratops in anterior view
Papo Protoceratops in anterior view. A close-up view of the impressive head shield of the Protoceratops. There are two eyespots painted on the headshield.

Papo Protoceratops with an Articulated Jaw

The Papo Protoceratops has been provided with a prominent beak for cropping tough vegetation and the model has an articulated lower jaw. The inside of the mouth has been well painted, and the Papo design team have provided the Protoceratops with rows of small white teeth in both the upper and lower jaw.

Papo Protoceratops dinosaur model.
A close-up view of the head of the Papo Protoceratops dinosaur model. The figure has been given a prominent beak and, in the mouth, the Papo design team have added some teeth to their model.
Papo Protoceratops model
Papo Protoceratops model in lateral view. In this image the mouth is open and some of the small, white teeth can be seen.

The Protoceratops Genus

The Protoceratops genus was erected in 1923 when the first species (P. andrewsi), was formally named and described (Granger and Gregory). The first fossils of this dinosaur were collected during the famous American Museum of Natural History expedition to the Gobi Desert. Protoceratops andrewsi is associated with the Mongolian Djadokhta Formation (Upper Cretaceous), a second species, the slightly larger Protoceratops hellenikorhinus was named and described in 2001 (Lambert et al). Fossils of P. hellenikorhinus are associated with the Bayan Mandahu Formation of Inner Mongolia (China).

Both the Djadokhta Formation and the potentially contemporaneous Bayan Mandahu Formation represent arid, desert-like palaeoenvironments.

Papo Protoceratops dinosaur model.
Papo Protoceratops dinosaur model. This dinosaur model is one of three new Papo prehistoric animal models expected in stock in 2022.

Three Papo Prehistoric Animal Models Expected in 2022

The Papo Protoceratops dinosaur model is one of three Papo prehistoric animal models expected in 2022. A new colour variant of the Styracosaurus is expected in stock and, towards the end of the year (quarter 4), Papo are expected to introduce a model of a Mosasaurus.

Papo Protoceratops model
The new for 2022 Papo Protoceratops dinosaur model in posterior view.

To view the Papo Protoceratops dinosaur model and the rest of the Papo prehistoric animal figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

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