All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
30 11, 2021

Effigia – A Triassic Browser

By | November 30th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

A Triassic herbivore, known for its supposed similarities to a modern-day ostrich and ornithomimid dinosaurs has been revealed to have an entirely different approach to feeding than previously thought, according to newly published research. The new discovery reveals a much broader diversity of herbivore behaviour during the Triassic period than has been recognised to date.

Effigia life reconstruction
Effigia life reconstruction. New research has clarified the mode of feeding for this Late Triassic archosaur. It was probably a browser. Picture credit: Mark Witton.

Effigia okeeffeae

Formally named and described in 2006 (Nesbitt and Norell), although fossils of this little archosaur on the crocodilian lineage of the Archosauria family tree were first found in the 1940s, Effigia (E. okeeffeae) roamed New Mexico around 205 million years ago.

Fossil remains had been relatively poorly preserved and the skull, in particular, was quite badly deformed, making accurate reconstruction challenging. Early analysis of the specimen concluded that it belonged to the group of reptiles that includes crocodilians and birds and which started to flourish in the Triassic period. Although more closely related to crocodilians, Effigia’s lightweight body, elongated neck, large eyes and beak shared many similarities with a modern-day ostrich, leading researchers to believe the animal fed by pecking plant material from the ground.

A new study of the fossil material, undertaken by experts at the University of Birmingham, has revealed this animal was probably an entirely different type of herbivore. The research, carried out in partnership with experts at the University of Bristol, University College London, University of York, Virginia Tech and the Natural History Museum in London, has been published in the academic journal “The Anatomical Record”.

The researchers examined CT scans of Effigia’s skull which permitted a much more accurate and three-dimensional reconstruction of the animal. This included new information about the morphology of the cranium, such as a more rounded, bulbous brain cavity and curved upper and lower jaws. Unlike the bill of an ostrich, which is more rounded, Effigia’s bill is concave with jaws that open and close a bit like a pair of shears.

The team used this information to model the effects of different forces acting on the skull, including what happens when the animal pecks at the ground. By modelling the forces the skull would need to withstand in order to feed by pecking, the researchers calculated that Effigia’s skull would probably have shattered. Instead, they suggest, the animal probably used its jaws to snip off and nibble pieces of soft plant material such as young shoots, or ferns. Effigia was likely to have been a selective browser.

Commenting on the significance of the research into the feeding habits of this Late Triassic archosaur, an animal that when first discovered was thought to be a dinosaur, lead researcher Dr Jordan Bestwick (University of Birmingham), stated:

“The herbivores we already recognise in the Triassic period fed either by digging for roots, such as the pig-like aetosaurs, or reaching for leaves high up in the treetops, like the long-necked sauropods. These two-legged browsers with a weak bite are unique to this period and show a previously unrecognised diversity among the herbivores of this period.”

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Birmingham in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Cranial functional morphology of the pseudosuchian Effigia and implications for its ecological role in the Triassic” by Jordan Bestwick, Andrew S. Jones, Sterling J. Nesbitt, Stephan Lautenschlager, Emily J. Rayfield, Andrew R. Cuff, David J. Button, Paul M. Barrett, Laura B. Porro, Richard J. Butler published in The Anatomical Record.

29 11, 2021

PNSO “Logan” Nanotyrannus Reviewed

By | November 29th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The recently introduced PNSO Logan the Nanotyrannus dinosaur figure has divided model collectors and dinosaur fans. Is Nanotyrannus lancensis a valid species or do the fossils assigned to this theropod represent juvenile examples of Tyrannosaurus rex?

PNSO Nanotyrannus dinosaur model.
The new for 2021 PNSO Nanotyrannus dinosaur model. Is Nanotyrannus lancensis a valid species?

The consensus view amongst most palaeontologists seems to favour the latter interpretation, that Nanotyrannus is not a valid genus and that the fossil specimens represent juvenile tyrannosaurs but what about the actual Nanotyrannus model itself? One Everything Dinosaur customer, William offers an opinion.

PNSO “Logan” the Nanotyrannus

Logan is a fantastic little guy and whichever camp you are in he’s a perfect example of a top-of-the-line Nanotyrannus lancensis or medium-sized juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex figure. You decide what he is to be in your collection.”

The reviewer praised the detail on the head commenting on the articulated lower jaw and complimented the shape of the skull that provides an accurate reflection of the fossil record.

Tongue placement was highlighted and its position towards the rear of the mouth commented upon and the finely crafted lacrimal crests earned the reviewer’s approval.

PNSO Nanotyrannus dinosaur model with an articulated jaw.
Like most of the other mid-size PNSO theropod figures, Logan the Nanotyrannus has an articulated lower jaw.

Visit the Everything Dinosaur website: Everything Dinosaur.

Longer Forelimbs Reminiscent of Allosaurids

Scientists are aware that the body shape of Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurs changed radically as they grew. The limbs were proportionately longer and the longer forelimbs of this PNSO figure reminded the reviewer of the limbs of allosaurids. The limb shape contrasts nicely with PNSO T. rex figures, Andrea the female T. rex for example.

William commented upon the well-sculpted legs and feet and described juvenile tyrannosaurs/Nanotyrannus as “like Cretaceous wolverines”.

The packaging was described as “superb” and the box containing the Nanotyrannus figure includes a detailed illustrated booklet and a clear, plastic support stand for the model.

PNSO Nanotyrannus packaging
The new PNSO mid-size range Nanotyrannus is supplied with a clear support stand.

When discussing the colour scheme chosen for this theropod, the reviewer stated that the dinosaur model had been painted in a rich, warm beige, with chocolate brown patches. The painting around the eyes was highlighted and the dark stripes on the flanks praised.

As with previous model reviews, William summarised the figure’s vital statistics.

Model Dimensions

Length: 6.5 inches.

Height: 2.5 inches.

Scale: 1:30.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, William stated:

“The wee guy is a must for your collection be he a dwarf tyrant or a tyrant lizard king. Add him and you will see for yourself, he may be wee, but he is mighty!”

To view the PNSO Nanotyrannus figure and the rest of the prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

28 11, 2021

Feefo 5-star Customer Review

By | November 28th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Our thanks to all the hundreds of Everything Dinosaur customers who leave feedback and reviews on our website and on our Feefo review page. Feefo is an independent ratings company and they email our customers requesting comments and feedback about products and on our customer service.

Everything Dinosaur is one of the highest rated companies for product quality and customer service in Feefo’s considerable portfolio. We consistently win awards for our customer service.

The Feefo platinum service award.
The Feefo Platinum Service Award. Everything Dinosaur has been awarded this accolade two years running.

Here is a typical review which we received recently:

5-stars for Everything Dinosaur

William, a regular Everything Dinosaur customer wrote:

“The lines of stock that Everything Dinosaur carries are of the highest quality and are safety tested for their younger customers. They have fantastic products that cannot be purchased anywhere else. The customer service is superior to any other company I have ever dealt with.”

Praising the Everything Dinosaur Blog

The reviewer went onto praise this blog, stating that the Everything Dinosaur blog covers a wide range of subjects from the earliest dinosaurs to the last of the megafauna that became extinct around 12,000 years ago.

Everything Dinosaur Blog
Examples of recent articles published on the Everything Dinosaur blog.

William concluded his review by stating:

“Every model I receive comes with an individual information sheet up to date with latest information on the prehistoric animal. I intend to expand my collection, but it wouldn’t even exist without Everything Dinosaur they are that important to me.”

Our thanks to William and every other customer who provides feedback and comments to Everything Dinosaur.

Visit the Everything Dinosaur website: Everything Dinosaur.

27 11, 2021

CollectA Kamuysaurus Dinosaur Model

By | November 27th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

With all the attention given to the recent new for 2022 CollectA prehistoric animal models, some of the 2021 figures made by CollectA can be overlooked. We have posted up some pictures of the excellent CollectA Prehistoric Life Kamuysaurus dinosaur model which was introduced this year (spring 2021).

The new for 2021 CollectA Kamuysaurus dinosaur model
The new for 2021 CollectA Kamuysaurus dinosaur model continues the trend for CollectA to make replicas of the unique Japanese dinosaur biota. Kamuysaurus follows on from Fukuiraptor and Fukuisaurus that were introduced previously.

Kamuysaurus japonicus

Named and described in 2019, the design team at CollectA were quick to add this hadrosaurid to their range of not to scale prehistoric animal models. When Everything Dinosaur sells one of these excellent figures, we send out a Kamuysaurus fact sheet that provides more information on this Late Cretaceous herbivore. These fact sheets are an integral part of the company’s education programme.

As part of our project to research and write a Kamuysaurus fact sheet we commissioned a scale drawing of the dinosaur.

Kamuysaurus scale drawing
A scale drawing of the hadrosaurid Kamuysaurus (K. japonicus) that was formally named and described in 2019. This Late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur is estimated to have measured around 8 metres in length and weighed 4 tonnes.

In 2021, CollectA introduced a total of eleven prehistoric animal models and a mini prehistoric animal model box set. The Kamuysaurus model was one of six not to scale figures to be added by the company. As this year draws to a close, team members at Everything Dinosaur remember the introduction of the CollectA Prehistoric Life Kamuysaurus dinosaur model in early 2021.

CollectA Kamusaurus dinosaur model.
The CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Kamuysaurus model. A replica of a hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of Japan.

To view the range of CollectA Prehistoric Life models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

26 11, 2021

New CollectA Models for 2022 (Final Part)

By | November 26th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|2 Comments

In our fourth and final blog post about new CollectA prehistoric animal models for 2022, we announce that a new version of the CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Triceratops will be introduced. The figure represents the species Triceratops horridus, the geologically older of the two Triceratops species formally recognised.

The model is due to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur around mid-2022.

CollectA Deluxe Triceratops horridus
The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Triceratops dinosaur model.

The image (above), shows the prototype, pre-production model the actual figure will have an articulated jaw.

T. horridus – Horrible Horned Face

Triceratops horridus is known from the Lower Hell Creek Formation dating from approximately 67.5 million years ago. Triceratops bones and teeth are relatively common in this part of the Hell Creek Formation and studies have shown that Triceratops fossils make up about 40% of the dinosaur fossil material. The robust skulls preserve relatively well and compared to its body size, the skull of this horned dinosaur was proportionately one of the largest known of any vertebrate. CollectA have chosen to give their new Triceratops a muted colour tone, with countershading on the underside. The exceptions to this are the neck frill and the side of the face with its large patches of white.

Those white flashes certainly give “horrible three-horned face” a striking appearance.

A close-up view of the head of the new for 2022 Collect Deluxe Triceratops.
A close-up view of the head of the new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Triceratops model.

A Model Based on the Latest Scientific Evidence

Although Triceratops is a very familiar dinosaur to members of the public, after all, it has appeared in films, television documentaries, novels, video games and even on stamps, vertebrate palaeontologists acknowledge that they still have a lot to learn about “three-horned face”.

There are lots of Triceratops fossils to found in the famous Hell Creek and Lance Formations but very few articulated, specimens have been excavated. The discovery of a superb T. horridus specimen in 2014 has helped palaeontologists to piece together more information about this iconic prehistoric animal.

The specimen was collected from private land in Montana (USA). The bones found represent about 87% of the entire skeleton and it will form part of a major dinosaur display at Melbourne Museum. The skull and neck frill are the most complete of any known Triceratops specimen (>99% complete) and the assembled frill measures over 1.48 metres wide.

The Triceratops fossil being excavated.
The Triceratops fossils in the quarry. The skeleton is slowly being excavated and the bones exposed. Picture credit: Museums Victoria.

The design team at CollectA have utilised some of the research into the Montana specimen along with recently published studies, reports and photographs on other Triceratops horridus specimens to create a model that reflects the latest scientific thinking.

Commenting on the significance of the Montana Triceratops specimen, Dr Erich Fitzgerald (Museums Victoria’s senior curator of palaeontology) stated:

“This is the Rosetta Stone for understanding Triceratops. Despite its popularity, there are still many unanswered questions about the anatomy and palaeobiology of Triceratops. This fossil comprises hundreds of bones including a complete skull and the entire vertebral column which will help us unlock mysteries about how this species lived 67 million years ago.”

The Skin of Triceratops

The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Triceratops replica has skin textures and scales that reflect what has been recorded in Triceratops horridus skin impressions.

The preserved skin of a Triceratops specimen on display at the Houston Museum of Natural Science (Texas, USA) indicates that this horned dinosaur had skin unlike any other ornithschian. It had substantial hexagonal tubercles (rounded, prominent scales) along with additional enormous (>10 cm across) tubercles with conical projections.

These skin impressions come from a specimen excavated in Wyoming and nick-named “Lane”. No formal scientific description has been published but the photographs that have been made available suggest that Triceratops had skin somewhat reminiscent of a Saltasaurus (titanosaur).

Model designer Anthony Beeson explained:

“The new CollectA model incorporates polygonal rosettes with central nipple-scales.”

CollectA Deluxe Triceratops (new for 2022) skin impressions
A close-up view of the skin texture on the new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Triceratops figure. The details on the skin reflect what is known from the fossil record.

Model Measurements

The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Triceratops horridus measures 28 cm in length and those impressive brow horns are some 13.6 cm off the ground. The figure has been given a scale of 1:40.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that this model is scheduled to be available around the middle of next year (2022).

To view the range of CollectA Prehistoric Life figures available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Prehistoric Life.

To view the range of CollectA Deluxe prehistoric animals available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Animal Models.

25 11, 2021

William Reviews the PNSO “Andrea” Female T. rex

By | November 25th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Dinosaur fan and model enthusiast William sent into Everything Dinosaur his review of the PNSO Andrea the female T. rex figure. William has been avidly collecting PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures for a while now. He was delighted when “Wilson” a new version of Tyrannosaurus rex was introduced recently and has been able to acquire the “Andrea” female T. rex figure so that the male and his mate can be together.

PNSO Andrea the female T. rex dinosaur model in lateral view
Although the position of the hind legs in this resting pose is controversial it is great to see a manufacturer introduce a figure of a theropod dinosaur in a prone, resting position. The reviewer praised the position of the front limbs and commented on the detailed musculature hinted at by the skin folds.

PNSO Female T. rex Model Review

William started his review by praising PNSO for all the wonderful figures that they have introduced this year and he was looking forward to seeing what marvels the company would launch in 2022.

The head sculpt is highlighted for its detail. William commented that the artist Zhao Chuang did his research into whether this theropod had lips, explaining that osteological research has identified large facial scales present beyond the margin of the upper mandible and therefore no lips have been added to this figure. The fully articulated jaw is well designed and the lower jaw fits into the upper jaw exactly. As the dinosaur is in a resting pose, to display it with the jaws open, the model’s head must be positioned over the edge of a shelf or slightly raised.

The eyes are placed correctly to indicate stereoscopic/binocular version and the sclera is coloured a dark yellow/reddish hue with a black pupil. William stated that the eyesight of this apex predator was believed to be particularly acute T. rex could pick out prey even when the intended victim was hidden in cover.

Andrea the female T. rex dinosaur model has an articulated jaw
PNSO Andrea the female T. rex dinosaur model has an articulated lower jaw.

In Praise of the Skin and Texture

The painstaking care taken to get the skin texture on the head so detailed is highlighted by the reviewer.

He comments that:

“The lacrimal crests are on the money and converge onto the nasal crest. No shrink wrapping on his antorbital fenestrae and orbits.”

The robust teeth are impressive and the mouth has been painted correctly in a rich, wet pink to give a natural look and William stated that if this dinosaur lost a tooth, then a replacement would erupt from the jaw. Tongue placement was accurate with a nasal opening in the roof of the palate also observed. William praised PNSO for these additional highlights.

The stocky body shape was commented upon in William’s review, both the male PNSO T. rex figure “Wilson” and his partner are regarded as having “ample heft”, the arms and figures of Andrea were praised. The shoulder muscles hidden under the skin folds were discussed and the muscles depicted in the tiny arms highlighted. William commented that the arms held close to the body gave the figure a natural resting pose.

PNSO Andrea the female T. rex in dorsal view.
PNSO Andrea the T. rex measures 19.7 cm long, accounting for the curve of the tail. The model is 13.8 cm wide and it has a stated scale of 1:35. The reviewer preferred to give the model’s measurements in imperial units.

Model Supplied with a Beautifully Illustrated Book

As befits a replica from PNSO with the talented palaeoartist Zhao Chuang on their team, this T. rex model comes with a beautifully illustrated book. The narrator comments on the position of the hind legs the presence of a cloaca and comments that this meat-eater looks poised ready to rise from her slumbers adding:

“Andrea’s powerful leg muscles are outstanding we can imagine her rising straight up in heartbeat to defend or feed.”

William explained that this figure is supplied in a superb white box, there is no need for a support stand for this dinosaur model, the prone position of the model is perfectly stable.

Comments on the Colour

The female T. rex has a much darker face with rich hues consisting of blacks and charcoals from the tip of the snout running along the upper jaw line rising upwards around the eyes with a column of black reaching up to fuse with the darkened crown of the skull. The reviewer comments that the chosen colour scheme “sets the head sculpt off to perfection”.

Model Dimensions

William states that the PNSO “Andrea” the female T. rex measures:

  • Length 12 inches
  • Height 2.75 inches

He concludes his review by stating:

“Andrea is worth adding to your collection! She is a true Tyrant Queen and accurate rexes come but once in one’s life.”

Our thanks to William for sending into Everything Dinosaur his review.

To view the PNSO female T. rex figure and the rest of the models in the PNSO prehistoric animals range: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

24 11, 2021

Pelecanimimus Under the Spotlight

By | November 24th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Known from a single specimen discovered in Spain back in 1993 Pelecanimimus (P. polyodon) from the Las Hoyas lagerstätte was the first unambiguous ornithomimosaur described from Europe. Although the scientific paper erecting the genus was published in 1994, no detailed examination of the holotype fossil material (LH 7777) had been undertaken.

A re-examination of the holotype fossil has been carried out by a team of international scientists, which included Francisco Ortega, one of the authors of the original scientific paper describing this 2-metre-long theropod. They conclude that Pelecanimimus was remarkably bird-like although as a member of the Ornithomimosauria it was not that closely related to the dinosaur lineage that led to the evolution of the birds.

A life reconstruction of Pelecanimimus.
Pelecanimimus had more than 200 small teeth it its long narrow jaws. Palaeontologists believe that this small theropod filled an ecological niche similar to modern herons. It waded in the shallows catching fish and small amphibians. Picture credit: José Antonio Peñas Artero.

An Ossified Sternum

Pelecanimimus when it was named, was the only ornithomimosaur that had a preserved ossified sternum. The sternum is not usually preserved in theropods, it has been suggested that this part of the skeleton was not ossified and therefore it did not fossilise well, or perhaps the absence of this structure was due to preservational bias. The distance observed between the coracoids in articulated theropod specimens led to many palaeontologists inferring its presence. In this new paper, the researchers examined the shape of the sternum and concluded that its morphology was similar to the sternums of dinosaurs more closely related to birds such as Velociraptor and Oviraptor (the Maniraptora clade).

Pelecanimimus holotype fossil material
Pelecanimimus polyodon holotype (LH 7777) viewed under (a) ultraviolet light and (b) normal light. The slabs containing the skull and the manus (hand) have been prepared whilst the central slab with the body had yet to be fully cleaned and prepared for study when this dinosaur was named. Scale bar in cm. Picture credit: Pérez-Moreno et al.

Pelecanimimus Breathed Like a Bird

Furthermore, the research team found evidence of the presence of uncinate processes. These small, hook-shaped bones are linked to the ribs and are also present in extant and extinct birds. Pelecanimimus is the only known representative of the Ornithomimosauria with these structures and this is the first time that uncinate processes have been found in a non-maniraptoran theropod. If maniraptorans evolved these structures, along with the distantly related Pelecanimimus, this suggests convergent evolution.

In birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. They make breathing more efficient. In summary, the research team suggest Pelecanimimus, breathed like a modern bird.

Elena Cuesta, the lead author of the study from the Fukui Prefectural University, Japan explained:

“The fact that Pelecanimimus preserved these processes suggests that it also had a bird-like breathing mechanism. Apparently, the origin of such avian-like features is older and more widespread than thought. However, the evolutionary history of both the ossified sternum and uncinate processes is still unclear. Nevertheless, their detection in Pelecanimimus confirms that these elements were present in Ornithomimosauria as well as in other dinosaurs.”

Pelecanimimus illustration.
Pelecanimimus drawing of the head, showing the small head crest and the throat pouch. Integumentary impressions resembled the gular pouch of a pelican. It was this feature that inspired this dinosaur’s name. Picture credit: M. Antón.

Distinctive Features on the Hands

The joint Japanese/Spanish research team also discovered distinctive features on the hands. The manus of Pelecanimimus has conspicuously elongated metacarpals, particularly metacarpal I and lengthened distal phalanges, a feature also found in some later, more derived ornithomimosaur species. The authors of the study conclude that these anatomical features require the erection of a new clade, the Macrocheiriformes. This clade is defined as including Pelecanimimus and more derived ornithomimosaurs. The term Macrocheiriformes, means “forms with large hands.”

The scientific paper: “Pelecanimimus (Theropoda: Ornithomimosauria) postcranial anatomy and the evolution of the specialized manus in Ornithomimosaurs and sternum in maniraptoriforms” by Elena Cuesta, Daniel Vidal, Francisco Ortega, Masateru Shibata and José L Sanz published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

23 11, 2021

Appalachia Gets a New Dinosaur

By | November 23rd, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A new dinosaur from Appalachia – Parrosaurus missouriensis.

For much of the Cretaceous the North American landmass was effectively divided into two, by a shallow sea (Western Interior Seaway). At its greatest extent it was around 1,000 kilometres (600 miles) wide, the long, narrow landmass that represented the western part of North America is known as Laramidia and palaeontologists have amassed a huge amount of data about the abundant dinosaurs that roamed these ancient shores. The eastern landmass, Appalachia, stretched from Newfoundland in the north, to the mid-west American states, but in comparison little is known about the Appalachian dinosaur fauna.

A new species of duck-billed dinosaur has been added to the Appalachian biota, named Parrosaurus missouriensis and as the species epithet suggests, this Late Cretaceous herbivore was found in Missouri.

Parrosaurus map and skeletal reconstruction
A skeletal reconstruction of Parrosaurus and a map showing North America in the Late Cretaceous. The red star shows the approximate location of the Missouri fossil find. Picture credit: Fox2 and Everything Dinosaur.

Very Rare Dinosaur Discovery

In contrast to the extensive, rapidly eroding “Badlands” of Montana, Wyoming and North/South Dakota, rocks of Cretaceous age from the ancient landmass of Appalachia are not exposed to any great extent in eastern North America. Dinosaur fossil bearing units are not being eroded, they remain buried under other strata and to add to this dilemma, much of the eastern part of the USA is conurbation. However, there are bright spots for palaeontologists looking for dinosaur bones.

Mines, eroding rivers and construction sites can all provide opportunities for fossil discoveries. Indeed, it was the digging of a well near to the village of Glen Allen in Bollinger County, south-eastern Missouri back in 1942 that led to the finding of several dinosaur bones, the first time such fossils had been reported from the “Show Me State”.

The caudal vertebrae that were excavated from the site were thought to represent a sauropod and it was scientifically described and named Neosaurus missouriensis in 1945 (Gilmore and Stewart). It was noted that the genus name was already occupied, Neosaurus having been erected in 1869 for a Palaeozoic synapsid from France, so the scientific name was changed to Parrosaurus missouriensis.

Duck-billed Dinosaur Fossils

Ironically, duck-billed dinosaur fossils had been found in North Carolina and the species Hypsibema crassicauda was erected in 1869, a review of the Glen Allen material (Baird and Horner), led to the erection of the species Hypsibema missouriensis as the Missouri fossils were confirmed to be hadrosaurid and showed similarities with the fossils that had been found in North Carolina.

More recent excavations carried out at the Glen Allen site, led by fossil expert Guy Darrough and with the support of the Field Museum of Chicago has led to the discovery of at least four individual hadrosaur specimens. The fossils found in close association in black clay represent three adults and juvenile.

The site has yielded other fascinating fossils, providing a glimpse into the fauna of Appalachia. For example, a scute (dermal armour) from a giant crocodilian has been found, fossils of turtles discovered and even the tooth of a tyrannosaur has been uncovered.

Parrosaurus missouriensis fossil material.
A Parrosaurus specimen in its protective burlap jacket. The broken tyrannosaur tooth found in close association with the hadrosaur bones is shown by the red arrow. Picture credit: Fox2.

Parrosaurus missouriensis

The extensive fossil material found as led to the establishment of a new species Parrosaurus missouriensis. This very notable fossil location might just prove to be a headache for the State administration, as in 2004 these fossils had been declared Missouri’s official State dinosaur when they were assigned to Hypsibema missouriensis.

Parrosaurus missouriensis life reconstruction
Parrosaurus missouriensis life reconstruction. Picture credit: Danny Morrison for the Saint Genevieve Museum Learning Centre.

The story has been widely reported and team members at Everything Dinosaur are optimistic that once the fossil material has been studied in detail and more of the specimens cleaned and prepared, then new discoveries will be made.

22 11, 2021

Albertaceratops Scale Drawing

By | November 22nd, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

As team members at Everything Dinosaur prepare for the arrival of the third wave of Beasts of the Mesozoic ceratopsian models, they have been busy finalising the Albertaceratops fact sheet. This fact sheet will be sent out with sales of the Beasts of the Mesozoic Albertaceratops nesmoi figure which is one of the wave 3 models coming into stock.

A scale drawing of Albertaceratops
A scale drawing of Albertaceratops (A. nesmoi), a horned dinosaur known from the Oldman Formation of Alberta, Canada.

A Basal Centrosaurine

Named and described back in 2007, based on the discovery of a partial skull, Albertaceratops was thought to be a distant relative of Triceratops when it was first being studied. Whilst the skull is centrosaurine in nature, this herbivorous dinosaur had two large brow horns, a characteristic associated with the Chasmosaurinae subfamily within the Ceratopsidae. Triceratops is classified as a chasmosaurine and as such, it was originally thought that Albertaceratops was related to it.

Most palaeontologists consider Albertaceratops to be most closely related to Medusaceratops (M. lokii), which is known from the Judith River Formation of Montana (USA). Both Medusaceratops and Albertaceratops lived at the same time (77.5 million years ago – Campanian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous). These two horned dinosaurs were coeval.

Albertaceratops is thought to represent an early member of the Centrosaurinae.

Beasts of the Mesozoic Albertaceratops dinosaur model
The Beasts of the Mesozoic Albertaceratops dinosaur model.

Medusaceratops was named and described in 2010 (Ryan, Russell and Hartman), an articulated replica of this dinosaur is in the Beasts of the Mesozoic ceratopsian range, it being one of the first models to be introduced (wave 1).

Beasts of the Mesozoic Medusaceratops.
Beasts of the Mesozoic Medusaceratops.

Beasts of the Mesozoic Wave 3 Ceratopsians in Stock Next Month (December 2021)

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that the wave 3 ceratopsian series was scheduled to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in December 2021.

To view the range of Beasts of the Mesozoic “raptors” and ceratopsians in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Beasts of the Mesozoic Models and Figures.

21 11, 2021

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Diorama

By | November 21st, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Our thanks to dinosaur model fan and collector James who sent into Everything Dinosaur some pictures of his Rebor Killer Queen T. rex dinosaur diorama. The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex in the “plain” colour scheme seems very much at home on this display, moving away from a damaged vehicle lying on its side with a tyre having been torn off a wheel. James has even added a water-filled T. rex footprint to add extra realism to his diorama.

Rebor Killer Queen "Plain" Dinosaur Diorama
The Rebor Killer Queen dinosaur diorama (anterior view), the tyre that has fallen off the damaged jeep can be seen on the left and the T. rex footprint is just behind the tyre.

The Trouble with T. rex

Tyrannosaurus rex might be the most popular choice for dinosaur model manufacturers but producing a large T. rex model such as the 1:35 scale Rebor Killer Queen does have some drawbacks. For example, as the vast majority of the meat-eating dinosaurs were bipedal, model designers have a tricky time of it, trying to balance their creation, when only the hind feet were in contact with the ground for most of the time.

Factories can make the hind feet oversized or perhaps include a transparent support stand to improve stability. Sometimes the best thing to do is to accept that if a dinosaur model is going to be anatomically in proportion, then the addition of a bespoke display base can make all the difference.

James has created a stunning dinosaur diorama, team members at Everything Dinosaur are reminded of the iconic scene in the film “Jurassic Park” when the Tyrannosaurus rex escapes from its enclosure.

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex dinosaur diorama (dorsal view).
The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex dinosaur diorama (dorsal view). A bird’s eye view of a non-avian dinosaur!

Stability issues with dinosaur models can often be fixed with a little bit of creative thinking. The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex figure looks very much at home on its bespoke display base.

T. rex footprint detail on the display base.
A water-filled T. rex footprint on the display base. When creating a display base, it is often the little details and touches that really bring the display to life and help to tell a story.

A Superb Dinosaur Display

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We have some very clever customers! We enjoy seeing prehistoric animal model displays and collections, this diorama made by James is a really stunning piece, we are grateful to him for sending us the photographs and giving us permission to share them with our blog and social media followers.”

The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex diorama
Rebor Killer Queen T. rex model on display.

It’s the Little Details and Extra Touches

When making a prehistoric animal diorama, it is often the little details and extra touches that elevate a piece. Take for example the exquisite jeep on its side, the vehicle is very dirty and muddy after its mauling by the tyrannosaur and James has taken care to get the mud splashes and smears just right. He has even ensured the underside of the vehicle is caked in mud too. The rear tyre has nearly been ripped off, caused by a bite from a T. rex no doubt.

The Rebor Killer Queen Tyrannosaurus rex diorama
The damaged jeep next to the Rebor Killer Queen T. rex model in the diorama.

Our congratulations to James for such a clever creation and our thanks to him for sending in the photographs to Everything Dinosaur.

To view the range of Rebor figures and models in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Prehistoric Animal Figures and Models.

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