All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
12 06, 2024

New “Prehistoric Times” Magazine Reviewed (Issue 149)

By |2024-06-13T18:54:20+01:00June 12th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Magazine Reviews, Main Page, Prehistoric Times|0 Comments

The latest edition of “Prehistoric Times” is brimming over with lots of amazing articles, illustrations and features.  This well-respected magazine has a global readership, and it is published quarterly.  The two featured prehistoric animals are the Brazilian pterosaur Tapejara and the North American ceratopsian Styracosaurus.  Thanks to Phil Hore, for once again producing a couple of informative and most interesting articles.  Styracosaurus provides the inspiration for the front cover artwork which was created by Kurt Miller. Palaeontologist Jordan Mallon explores the Styracosaurus specimens in the vertebrate collection of the Canadian Museum of Nature.  The genus may have been erected over a hundred years ago, but despite recent centrosaurine discoveries, “spike lizard” continues to amaze and inspire.

The front cover artwork for "Prehistoric Times" issue 149.

The front cover artwork for “Prehistoric Times” issue 149 (Spring 2024).


Poignantly, editor Mike Fredericks includes an image of a Styracosaurus statue made by the artist and sculptor Mike Trcic.  We were saddened to hear of his passing and our condolences to his family.

Styracosaurus Artwork in “Prehistoric Times”

There are lots of Styracosaurus illustrations accompanying Phil Hore’s excellent article. Once again, we have been impressed by the reader contributions.  Personal favourites include the pair of Styracosaurus fighting by Victoria Grabowski, the black and white drawing of the impressive head crest and nose horn created by Brad McFeeters and the illustration by the magazine’s editor Mike Fredericks.  Honourable mentions too for Mike Landry for his CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale inspired Styracosaurus artwork and for Wade Carmen, whose main drawing reminded us of the Papo Styracosaurus figure.

Tracy Lee Ford helps us put skin on the bones of sauropods.  In a fascinating article the dermal armour of titanosaurs is explored.  In addition, we learn more about dermal spines on diplodocids.  On the subject of sauropods and titanosaurs in particular, we note that Randy Knol includes the new CollectA Dreadnoughtus figure in his review of recently introduced figures.

South American Native Ungulates (SANUs)

J. R. Lavas continues his exploration of the artwork produced by the highly influential Czech artist Zdeněk Burian.  In this issue the focus is on South American native ungulates (SANUs).  As with the sparassodonts which featured in issue 148, SANUs were not popular subjects with many early 20th century palaeoartists. For example, Burian only produced a few sketches and no formal paintings.  The author has used some of his own superb illustrations for the article.

Macrauchenia patachonica illustrated.

Macrauchenia patachonica illustrated. Picture credit: J. Lavas.

Picture credit: J. Lavas

Burian’s artwork does feature in an article by Rosta Walica covering the three volumes of the “Prehistoric World of Zdeněk Burian”.  The article outlines the extensive work involved in compiling this comprehensive trilogy.  There are plenty of Burian’s paintings to admire, the authors including several prehistoric mammal illustrations as well as some of Burian’s classic dinosaur artwork.

Pioneering Palaeontologists and Palaeoartists

This year marks the 170th anniversary of the opening of the world’s first dinosaur theme park at Crystal Palace, London. A conservation programme to protect these grade I listed statues is continuing. Slowly but surely these iconic statues are being restored to their former glory.  In a piece penned by Victor Monnin, the observations of H. G. Wells on time travel are discussed.  Wells wrote the highly influential book “The Time Machine”.  It was published in 1895.  The article is illustrated with images of H. G. Wells and two prints highlighting the Crystal Palace geological park.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s blog post about the restoration of the prehistoric animal statues at Crystal Palace: A Palaeotherium is Welcomed Back.

The magazine features an interview with British palaeontologist Mike Benton and the palaeoartist Bob Nicholls.  They have collaborated on a new book that examines dinosaur behaviour.  The Mesozoic media section contains several book reviews including another volume by Professor Michael Benton entitled “Extinctions – How Life Survives, Adapts and Evolves”.

Other highlights of issue 149 include an interview with veteran preparator Howell Thomas of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County and the concluding part of Sean Kotz’s build a Stegosaurus kit.

Congratulations to Chuck Egnaczak, Anders Bang, Matt Finstrom, Chris Alfalo and all the other artwork contributors for Phil Hore’s Tapejara piece and take a look at the comprehensive “Paleonews” section.

For further details about “Prehistoric Times” magazine and to subscribe: “Prehistoric Times” Magazine.

10 06, 2024

Crystal Palace Dinosaurs Celebrate 170 Years!

By |2024-06-09T15:50:30+01:00June 10th, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page|0 Comments

The Crystal Palace dinosaurs exhibit was formally opened on this day in 1854.  The famous geological park located in south London, represents the world’s first prehistoric animal theme park. Today, we celebrate this remarkable Victorian era attraction.  Although frequently referred to as “Dinosaurs”, only four of the statues represent members of the Dinosauria.  Other statues represent, pterosaurs, marine reptiles, turtles as well as prehistoric mammals.

Iguanodons at Crystal Palace.

A pair of Iguanodons study the Crystal Palace landscape. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture (above) shows the pair of Iguanodons on display at Crystal Palace.  Over the last two decades or so, these beautiful and scientifically important figures have been the subject of extensive conservation efforts.  In 2007, the statues were assigned Grade I listed monument status.  This is the most important rating for a monument under Historic England’s National Heritage List.  This status is reserved for sites of international significance.

To read about the Grade I listed monument protection: World’s First Dinosaur Statues Get Grade I Listed Status.

The Crystal Palace Dinosaurs

There are around thirty palaeontological statues, along with five displays explaining geology. Most of the statues remain in their original positions. The statues were created by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins with the technical assistance of the famous anatomist Richard Owen. Joseph Paxton designed the landscape.  Fund raising efforts from the “Friends of the Crystal Palace Dinosaurs” continue today.

Everything Dinosaur expects that a major grant from the National Lottery will be allocated to the site, to permit the restoration work to continue.  This grant is expected to be announced later this year.

Crystal Palace dinosaurs and prehistoric animals.

Prehistoric animal figures at Crystal Palace, the world’s first “Jurassic Park”.  The park is commemorating the 170th anniversary of its opening.  Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Prehistoric Animal Models

Construction work continued at the park until 1855.  To help raise funds for the work, some prehistoric animal models were commissioned. These items were priced at £30 and were designed to be “educational”.  However, we now know that the dinosaur reconstructions were highly inaccurate.  Notwithstanding this, today we celebrate the 170th anniversary of the official opening of the world’s first prehistoric animal theme park.

Happy birthday Crystal Palace dinosaurs.

The award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Prehistoric Animal Models and Dinosaur Toys.

9 06, 2024

Limited-edition New Haolonggood Daspletosaurus Figure on Display

By |2024-06-09T13:21:20+01:00June 9th, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Haolonggood Prehistoric Animal Models, Main Page|0 Comments

Our thanks to dinosaur model collector Carl who sent into Everything Dinosaur a photograph of his recently acquired Haolonggood Daspletosaurus figure.  This limited-edition tyrannosaur replica looks at home amongst the CollectA prehistoric plants.  In addition, Carl has depicted his Daspletosaurus attacking a Rebor Triceratops.  The Daspletosaurus (D. torosus) is part of a special production run.  Less than two hundred of these remarkable figures have been made.

Haolonggood Daspletosaurus.

Thanks to Carl for sending into Everything Dinosaur a photograph of his recently acquired limited-edition Haolonggood Daspletosaurus torosus model. This 1/20th scale model is photographed alongside CollectA prehistoric plants, and it is attacking a pair of Rebor Triceratops figures. Picture credit: Carl.

Picture credit: Carl

A Fabulous Haolonggood Daspletosaurus Picture

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur thanked Carl for sending in such a fabulous Daspletosaurus inspired image.  The Daspletosaurus torosus figure has stunning detail and it is an exquisite example of dinosaur model manufacturing at its very best.  The figure is in 1:20 scale and it is beautifully balanced.  This exclusive model is also supplied with its own hand-painted display base.

A limited-edition Pachyrhinosaurus model in 1:20 scale has also been introduced by Haolonggood.

To view the range of Haolonggood dinosaur and prehistoric models available: Haolonggood Prehistoric Animal Models.

Limited-edition Haolonggood models.

Two limited-edition Haolonggood models. An amazing sculpture of the tyrannosaur Daspletosaurus torosus and a brilliant ceratopsian complete with display base (Pachyrhinosaurus).

The Everything Dinosaur spokesperson added:

“The Daspletosaurus genus has been extensively studied. It is perhaps one of the best known of all the Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurs.  Our blog has featured lots of Daspletosaurus news stories and fossil discoveries.  For example, in late 2022, we wrote an article about a new species of Daspletosaurus being erected.  It is great to see Haolonggood introducing a limited-edition replica of this iconic theropod.  It is also great to see these models featuring so prominently in figure collections.”

To read about the new species of Daspletosaurus: A New Daspletosaurus Species is Named.

Visit the Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Toys and Models.

8 06, 2024

Froglets Spotted in the Office Pond!

By |2024-06-09T12:06:54+01:00June 8th, 2024|Animal News Stories, Photos|0 Comments

Froglets spotted in the office pond!  Team members at Everything Dinosaur recorded several froglets around the margins of the small office pond.  The pond was built several years ago to help support local wildlife.  Frogs (Rana temporaria), have spawned in the pond since 2008.  Each year, we record the date of the laying of the first frogspawn.  In 2023, we recorded frogspawn in February (February 28th), for the first time.  This year, (2024) the first frogspawn was laid even earlier on February 18th.  Is this a sign of local climate change?

Froglets spotted in the office pond.

A pair of froglets spotted in the office pond. We have added red arrows to help you spot the tiny amphibians.  Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To read about the discovery of frogspawn on February 18th 2024: Frogspawn Spotted in our Office Pond!

Froglets Spotted and Plans in Place to Protect Them

We have tried to leave the pond alone over the last two months or so.  It does need a tidy up, but we have let nature take its course.  Plans are in place to develop lots of insect friendly habitats around the pond.  This will help local wildlife and hopefully provide plenty of food for the frogs and other creatures.  We hope to encourage more wildlife into the area.  Team members have plans to plant more bee-friendly flowers and to develop a small rockery that will provide plenty of cover for small animals.

Froglets spotted in office pond.

A tiny froglet in the office pond. It was spotted today along with several others. A red arrow has been added to the photograph to indicate the location of the froglet.  This year (2024) we recorded the first frogspawn on February 18th. This is the earliest time in the year that we have recorded frogspawn in the office pond. Now in the second week of June we have froglets emerging. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented that the pond had proven to be a haven for local wildlife.

He added:

“We have spotted damselflies, hoverflies and lots of honey bees.  The bees come down to the edge of the pond to get a drink.  We want to plant more flowers to help bees and other insects.  In addition, we have added stone-filled gabion baskets to provide extra habitats for insects and other small animals.”

The spokesperson also explained that they had used local stone to create a small rockery to help animals move easily from one part of the site to the office pond.

The Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Toys.

6 06, 2024

A New, Giant Oxfordshire Pterosaur is Unearthed

By |2024-06-10T14:14:18+01:00June 6th, 2024|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A partial wing bone from a huge, Jurassic pterosaur has been unearthed south of Oxford.  The Abingdon pterosaur discovery suggests that some Jurassic pterosaurs had wingspans in excess of three metres.  The fossil bone (specimen number EC K2576) was found when strata representing the Upper Jurassic was exposed on the floor of a gravel quarry.  The fossil bone is not complete.  It consists of three pieces but from this single bone, a size of the overall wingspan can be estimated.  The wing bone is believed to be around 148 million years old (Tithonian faunal stage of the Late Jurassic).

The Abingdon pterosaur discovery, a view of the wing bone.

Left wing phalanx 1 of a pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of Abingdon, Oxfordshire. The specimen number is EC K2576. Original specimen (A) and B, simplified interpretive drawing. Scale bar = 10 mm. Picture credit: University of Portsmouth.

The Abingdon Pterosaur Discovery

In the early summer of 2022, geologist Dr James Etienne came across the well-preserved specimen when exploring temporary exposures of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation.  Numerous other fossils were found including ammonites and bivalves that acted as biostratigraphic markers, helping to confirm the edge of the deposits.  In addition, fossils of sharks and a vertebra from a marine crocodile were found.  Several bones from ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs were also identified.

Researchers from the universities of Portsmouth and Leicester collaborated with Dr Etienne and a scientific paper outlining this discovery has been published.  The wing bone has been assigned to an adult ctenochasmatoid (Ctenochasmatoidea clade).  This clade of pterosaurs was globally distributed.  They tended to have slender wings, long hind legs, elongate and narrow jaws lined with bristle-like teeth.  Their fossils are associated with aquatic environments.  The three pieces of bone that have been found represent the first phalanx from the left wing.

Abingdon pterosaur discovery,

A life reconstruction of the Abingdon pterosaur based on a typical ctenochasmatoid pterosaur. Picture credit: Hamzah Imran.

The picture (above) shows a life reconstruction of a typical ctenochasmatoid pterosaur.  It was drawn by University of Portsmouth student Hamzah Imran.

Co-author of the scientific paper, Professor David Martill (University of Portsmouth), stated:

“When the bone was discovered, it was certainly notable for its size. We carried out a numerical analysis and came up with a maximum wingspan of 3.75 metres. Although this would be small for a Cretaceous pterosaur, it’s absolutely huge for a Jurassic one!”

The location of the Abingdon pterosaur fossil find.

Map showing locality of the newly discovered pterodactyloid pterosaur wing phalanx EC K2576 from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation. Picture credit: University of Portsmouth.

Professor Martill added:

“This fossil is also particularly special because it is one of the first records of this type of pterosaur from the Jurassic period in the United Kingdom.”

The Size of Jurassic Pterosaurs

Whilst many of the Cretaceous pterosaurs were gigantic, most Jurassic and Triassic pterosaur genera were much smaller.  Most early Mesozoic pterosaurs had wingspans of around one or two metres.  However, this Abingdon pterosaur discovery, suggests that some Jurassic flying reptiles could grow much larger.

With an estimated wingspan of around 3.75 metres, this gives the Abingdon pterosaur a wingspan comparable to the largest living, volant birds.  The pterosaur has not been formally named, but the researchers nicknamed the pterosaur “Abfab”.

Co-author of the paper, Dr Dave Unwin (University of Leicester), explained:

“Abfab, our nickname for the Abingdon pterosaur, shows that pterodactyloids, advanced pterosaurs that completely dominated the Cretaceous, achieved spectacularly large sizes almost immediately after they first appeared in the Middle Jurassic right about the time the dinosaurian ancestors of birds were taking to the air.”

A Reappraisal of the Size of Dearc sgiathanach

In early 2022, a paper was published (Jagielska et al) that described a large pterosaur from the Isle of Skye.  This pterosaur was named Dearc sgiathanach.  These fossils represent the most complete skeleton of a Middle Jurassic pterosaur ever found in the UK. Wingspan estimates for Dearc vary, with estimates ranging from 1.9 to 3.8 metres.  As part of the analysis of the Abingdon ctenochasmatoid phalanx the researchers re-examined the wingspan calculations for Dearc sgiathanach.

Dearc is geologically much older than the Abingdon specimen.  It is also a very different type of pterosaur.  It is a rhamphorhynchine.  The humerus of Dearc is substantial. It measures 112 mm in length. It is one of the largest Jurassic pterosaur humerus fossils known, but larger humeri, most notably from the geologically younger Solnhofen Limestone deposits of Germany have been described.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s blog post about the scientific description of Dearc sgiathanachFantastic Pterosaur Fossil from the Isle of Skye.

Challenging Conclusions Made in the 2022 Dearc sgiathanach Paper

The research team challenged the conclusions made by Jagielska et al in their 2022 paper. They contest that the calculation of wingspan size for Dearc sgiathanach was based on a close comparison with the highly derived rhamphorhynchine Rhamphorhynchus. Rhamphorhynchus had a long forelimb and relatively elongate wing-finger. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that Dearc was not closely related to Rhamphorhynchus. It was more closely related to basal rhamphorhynchines such as Angustinaripterus. Comparing the wing bones of Dearc to more closely related pterosaurs (Angustaripterini) led this research team to conclude that Dearc was still a sizable Jurassic pterosaur, but its wingspan was probably around two metres.

Jurassic pterosaur wingspan comparisons.

A selection of outlines of large Jurassic pterosaur wingspans. Left pterodactyloids, right ‘rhamphorhynchoids’. Dual silhouettes indicate the lower and upper end member estimates on wingspan based on comparative morphological analysis. Dearc sgiathanach based upon revised wingspan estimate in this study. Picture credit: University of Portsmouth.

The Abingdon Pterosaur Discovery Represents one of the Largest Jurassic Flying Reptiles Known to Science

Professor Martill commented on the Abingdon pterosaur discovery:

“This specimen [specimen number EC K2576] is now one of the largest known pterosaurs from the Jurassic period worldwide, surpassed only by a specimen in Switzerland with an estimated wingspan of up to five metres.”

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Portsmouth in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “A ‘giant’ pterodactyloid pterosaur from the British Jurassic” by James L. Etienne, Roy E. Smith, David M. Unwin, Robert S.H. Smyth, and David M. Martill published in the Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association.

The Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

5 06, 2024

New Nanmu Studio King of the Giant Apes Resin Figure in Stock

By |2024-06-05T22:19:42+01:00June 5th, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

The remarkable Nanmu Studio King of the Giant Apes resin model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur. It is a spectacular replica of a giant ape.  Team members have been busy contacting all those customers and movie monster fans who wanted this new figure. The model pays tribute to “King Kong” and its arrival coincides with the latest film in the Kong and Godzilla franchise.

King of the Giant Apes

The Nanmu Studio new for 2024 King of the Giant Apes resin replica.  This is a stunning resin figure of a famous movie monster.

King of the Giant Apes Rage

The Nanmu Studio King of the Giant Apes Rage is supplied with a beautiful display base, complete with human remains to provide a fitting scale to this giant of the cinema.  The actual model measures around twenty-three centimetres in height.  The display base is approximately fifteen centimetres long and around ten and a half centimetres wide.  A peg permits the figure to be securely inserted into the display base.  The model is described as a collectable with an age restriction of fifteen years upwards.  It is a superb, highly collectable Nanmu Studio Dragon Soul King of the Apes statue.

To view the range of Nanmu Studio figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Nanmu Studio Prehistoric Animal Figures.

Nanmu Studio "King of the Giant Apes" Fury.

The limited-edition Nanmu Studio “King of the Giant Apes” known as Fury.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented that this was a limited-edition figure.  The model shows incredible detail and the scars on the chest and the realistic fur was praised. The spokesperson explained that the figure requires a little bit of assembly.  The arms have to be inserted in special sockets.  It only takes a few seconds to assembly the model and insert it onto its spectacular display base.  No glue is required, but the Everything Dinosaur spokesperson did comment that the limbs could be glued into place if preferred.

The spokesperson added:

“This new Nanmu Studio King of the Giant Apes figure is fantastic.  It looks amazing and we can’t wait to pose it next to some T. rex figures.  We can recreate a famous scene from a film.  Or perhaps we could place this model next to a replica of Godzilla.”

To view the website of Everything Dinosaur: Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

3 06, 2024

New for 2024 PNSO Lufengosaurus Dinosaur Models

By |2024-06-04T13:43:00+01:00June 3rd, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models|0 Comments

The new for 2024 PNSO Lufengosaurus model is now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  It is great to see a Chinese manufacturer creating a replica of a Chinese sauropodomorph.  The dinosaur figure is entitled “Yiran the Lufengosaurus” and customers will receive an Everything Dinosaur Lufengosaurus fact sheet with purchases.

The new for 2024 PNSO Lufengosaurus model.

The new for 2024 PNSO Lufengosaurus dinosaur model. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The New PNSO Lufengosaurus Model

Lufengosaurus lived in China during the Early Jurassic. Numerous specimens have been discovered. Yang Zhongjian, known in western literature as Chung Chien Young, formally erected the genus in 1941. Two species are currently recognised, Lufengosaurus huenei and a larger species Lufengosaurus magnus. However, there is still debate amongst scientists as to the validity of L. magnus. Fossil specimens ascribed to this species could represent examples of extremely large and old Lufengosaurus huenei.

The PNSO Lufengosaurus is supplied with an A3-sized science-art poster.  In addition, the box includes a sixty-four-page colour booklet.

A trio of PNSO Lufengosaurus models.

Mike of Everything Dinosaur with three Lufengosaurus dinosaur models. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of PNSO models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Figures.

The Model Measurements

This new sauropodomorph figure measures twenty-five centimetres long. It stands approximately ten and a half centimetres high. PNSO have not declared a scale for their figure. However, based on a length of six metres for Lufengosaurus huenei, we estimate that this model is in 1:24 scale.

PNSO Lufengosaurus dinosaur model.

The new for 2024 PNSO Yiran the Lufengosaurus figure.

Mike from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that team members were busy contacting customers about this new model.  He explained that customers who requested a model being set aside for them were now being emailed.

PNSO and Everything Dinosaur are going to be announcing more new for 2024 prehistoric animal figures later this year.

To visit the award-winning and customer friendly Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Toys, Models and Figures.

2 06, 2024

A New Abelisaurid from Argentina – Koleken inakayali

By |2024-06-03T21:51:05+01:00June 2nd, 2024|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A new species of South American abelisaurid dinosaur has been named by scientists.  It lived in Patagonia around 69 million years ago (Maastrichtian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous.  Named Koleken inakayali it shared its estuarine environment with the much bigger, related abelisaurid Carnotaurus sastrei.  Its discovery and subsequent phylogenetic analysis provides a much needed context for understanding the rate of evolution within ceratosaurian theropods. Koleken helps to reinforce the belief that abelisaurids were the most successful group of large meat-eating dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Gondwana.

Koleken inakayali life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of the newly described abelisaurid dinosaur Koleken inakayali. Picture credit: Gabriel Diaz Yantén.

Koleken inakayali

Most of the fossil material comes from a substantial concretion collected from strata associated with the La Colonia Formation of Chubut Province, southern Argentina.  The concretion contained the posterior portion of the skeleton.  Fragmentary pieces of skull were also recovered.  Analysis of the bones suggests that the fossils represent a subadult animal, which was at least six years old when it died.  Although Koleken lived at the same time as Carnotaurus, the researchers concluded that the fossils represented a new, unique abelisaurid and not a specimen of an immature Carnotaurus.  Several unique characteristics of the bones were identified. Furthermore, Koleken inakayali lacked horns on its skull. Skull horns are a characteristic associated with Carnotaurus.

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies C. sastrei museum quality skull model.

Carnotaurus possessed a pair of horns on the top of its head. The newly described Koleken inakayali lacked horns.

The picture (above) shows a model of a Carnotaurus sastrei skull from Rebor.

To view the range of Rebor prehistoric animal figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

Roughened bone surface associated with the nasal area does suggest that this dinosaur may have had some sort of ridge structure running along its snout.

Koleken inakayali material excavated from La Colonia Formation (southern Argentina).

The fossil material was collected from deposits associated with the La Colonia Formation (Chubut Province, southern Argentina). Field team members prepare some of the fossil bones for removal.  Picture credit: María Agustinho.

Coming from Clay and Water

The genus name is derived from Kóleken, a name in the local Teushen language spoken by the native population of central Patagonia that means “coming from clay and water”.  The specimen was found in a sedimentary section dominated by claystone representing an estuarine environment. The trivial or species name honours Inakayal, one of the last chiefs of the native people from central Patagonia (the Tehuelches).  He is known for his resistance against Argentina’s 19th century military campaign, which resulted in the decimation and displacement of native communities from southern Argentina.

Lead author of the scientific paper Diego Pol (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Buenos Aires), commented:

“The new dinosaur is represented by a partial skeleton that includes several skull bones, an almost complete set of back bones, a complete hip, several tail bones and almost complete legs”.

The carcase of Koleken inakayali was probably transported by a river to an estuary, where it was buried shortly after its death.  The first fossils were discovered in 2015.  Although far from complete, this specimen will help palaeontologists assess how different parts of the skeleton of abelisaurids and their close relatives changed over time.

Co-author of the paper, Fernando Novas (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia), explained:

“We analysed the evolutionary relationships of abelisaurids and their closest relatives, the noasaurids, and found periods of time in which these groups changed rapidly and other periods in which their evolution remained almost at a standstill.”

Koleken inakayali fossils being cleaned.

Fossilised bones of Koleken being cleaned and prepared for further study. Picture credit: María Agustinho.

Abelisaurids Coexisted

The discovery of this new abelisaurid expands our knowledge about Late Cretaceous theropods of South America.  Koleken demonstrates that several species of abelisaurids coexisted in the same environments during the Maastrichtian faunal stage of the Cretaceous.  It also shows that abelisaurids were extremely diverse compared to other types of dinosaur.  Abelisaurids were probably the dominant carnivores.  The larger Carnotaurus sastrei was probably the apex predator, whilst Koleken inakayali at around four to five metres in length, probably filled a secondary predator niche.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur stated:

“We are learning more about ancient palaeoenvironments and the animals that existed within them.  Perhaps, the African plains today can provide an analogy.  You could consider Carnotaurus as fulfilling the role of a lion in this ecosystem, with Koleken filling a secondary predator niche such as a leopard.”

For Dominic

Team members from Everything Dinosaur met a remarkable young dinosaur fan called Dominic recently.  Dominic knew that a new species of meat-eating dinosaur had just been announced and was keen to learn more about Koleken.  We promised that we would dedicate our blog post about this new dinosaur to him.  Perhaps Dominic’s mum could ask him to draw Koleken inakayali.  We would very much like to see how Dominic interprets this new dinosaur discovery.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia in the compilation of this article.

For Dominic.

The scientific paper: “A new abelisaurid dinosaur from the end Cretaceous of Patagonia and evolutionary rates among the Ceratosauria” by Diego Pol, Mattia Antonio Baiano, David Černý, Fernando E. Novas, Ignacio A. Cerda and Michael Pittman published in cladistics.

1 06, 2024

Beautiful and Amazing Dinosaur Cakes

By |2024-06-04T06:26:50+01:00June 1st, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur team members are constantly amazed by how talented our customers and fans of dinosaurs can be.  For example, when attending the special screening of “WHY DINOSAURS?” in Sheffield, we spotted some incredible dinosaur cakes.  As part of the red carpet reception, a selection of dinosaur themed cakes had been prepared.  They were beautiful.  One cake depicted a scene from the movie “Jurassic Park”.  This was extremely appropriate, after all, we were attending a film premiere.

A Jurassic Park themed dinosaur cake.

A stunning scene from Jurassic Park which is entirely edible. At the screening of “WHY DINOSAURS?” in Sheffield Everything Dinosaur team members spotted some amazing dinosaur cakes. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Wonderful Dinosaur Cakes

Team members were able to talk to the talented couple who had created the wonderful dinosaur cakes.  It was explained that every part of the “Jurassic Park” cake was edible.  Even the soil and rocks could be eaten.  We praised the bakers and marvelled at the little cupcakes with a three-toed dinosaur footprint on top.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We were amazed at the detail that the bakers had managed to recreate. The cakes were beautiful, and it was a shame that they had to be cut up, but we can confirm they tasted as good as they looked.”

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: Dinosaur Toys and Models.

Amazing dinosaur cakes.

For the special screening of the “WHY DINOSAURS?” documentary some superb dinosaur themed cakes had been made. All very tasty too. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Film Premiere

Everything Dinosaur has sponsored the UK screenings of a remarkable dinosaur documentary entitled “WHY DINOSAURS?”.  We were fortunate to be able to take a break from our busy schedule and attend the Sheffield screening.  It was fantastic to be able to meet so many talented and creative people.  We even got to meet the bakers and to hear how they had made these wonderful dinosaur cakes.

The Everything Dinosaur spokesperson added:

“Our congratulations to all involved in the film premiere. We appreciate how much work goes into an event such as this. It was a wonderful evening and Everything Dinosaur is proud to have been involved.”

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