All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
31 05, 2022

The Extinction of Megalodon

By | May 31st, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The extinction of Megalodon more appropriately termed Otodus megalodon, regarded as the largest hypercarnivorous shark that has ever existed has been the subject of numerous scientific papers. Newly published research suggests that competition for food and space with the Great White Shark (C. carcharias) and possibly other large taxa such as hypercarnivorous toothed whales could have played a role in the giant fish’s extinction.

Brilliant artwork on the PNSO Megalodon model cover sleeve.
The amazing, colourful sleeve artwork on the PNSO Megalodon figure. Several scientific papers have explored the potential reasons for the demise and extinction of Otodus megalodon – regarded as the largest hypercarnivorous shark known to science.

Zinc Isotope Analysis from Teeth

The diet of extinct animals can hold clues to their lifestyle, behaviour, evolution and ultimately their extinction. However, studying an animal’s diet after millions of years is difficult due to the poor preservation of chemical dietary indicators in organic material. An international team of scientists led by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig, Germany), used a new technique, analysing zinc isotopes preserved in the mineralised tooth enamel to assess how far up the food chain Otodus megalodon was placed in comparison to the extant Great White Shark.

Tooth comparison Megalodon and Great White Shark
A tooth from the extinct early Pliocene Otodus megalodon (left) compared with a tooth (right) from a modern Great White Shark (C. carcharias). Picture credit: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

More Reliable than Nitrogen Isotope Analysis of Tooth Collagen

Nitrogen analysis of tooth collagen, a protein-based component of tooth dentine, has been used to establish the degree of animal matter consumed in a diet. However, in fossils collagen is generally not preserved so an analysis of zinc isotopes associated with the highly mineralised tooth enameloid may prove to be a more reliable indicator of the diet of long extinct animals.

Lead author of the study, published in “Nature Communications”, Dr Jeremy McCormack (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology) stated:

“On the timescales we investigate, collagen is not preserved, and traditional nitrogen isotope analysis is therefore not possible.”

The isotope ratios in O. megalodon teeth from the Pliocene were studied along with earlier Miocene “megatooth” taxa such as Otodus chubutensis. Modern contemporaneous shark species such as C. carcharias were analysed to provide a comparison. The researchers identified similar zinc isotope signatures in extinct as well as their modern analogous taxa.

Megalodon Occupied the Same Niche as Great White Sharks

The researchers concluded that super-sized sharks such as Otodus megalodon occupied the same niche in the ecosystem as the extant Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias). This suggests that when these two taxa were contemporaneous, they would have competed for the same resources.

This competition may have played a role in the demise and eventual extinction of Megalodon.

CollectA Deluxe Megalodon shark model.
The CollectA 1:40 scale Megalodon shark model. The extinction of Otodus megalodon could have been caused by multiple, compounding environmental and ecological factors including climate change and thermal limitations, the collapse of prey populations and resource competition with Carcharodon carcharias.

The extinction of Otodus megalodon could have had multiple causes. For example, environmental and ecological factors including climate change and dramatic cooling of the seas resulting in a restriction of the habitat of O. megalodon. In addition, the collapse of prey populations along with resource competition from Carcharodon carcharias could have put the Megalodon population under increasing pressure.

This study did not examine the potential impact on O. megalodon through competition from toothed whales (carnivorous odontocetes). If zinc isotope analysis proves to be a reliable methodology for analysing the diets of long extinct creatures, then this technique could be used to examine the impact of toothed whales on Megalodon populations.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Trophic position of Otodus megalodon and great white sharks through time revealed by zinc isotopes” by Jeremy McCormack, Michael L. Griffiths, Sora L. Kim, Kenshu Shimada, Molly Karnes, Harry Maisch, Sarah Pederzani, Nicolas Bourgon, Klervia Jaouen, Martin A. Becker, Niels Jöns, Guy Sisma-Ventura, Nicolas Straube, Jürgen Pollerspöck, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Robert A. Eagle and Thomas Tütken published in Nature Communications.

30 05, 2022

PNSO Sinraptor Model – Join Waitlist

By | May 30th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Xinchuan the PNSO Sinraptor model will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur next month (June 2022). There is no need to pre-order this figure, simply join the Everything Dinosaur waitlist for this dinosaur replica and you will receive a priority notification email when this figure is in stock.

PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor figure.
Sinraptor dongi was formally named and described in 1994. The species name is in honour of the eminent Professor Dong Zhiming, one of China’s most celebrated palaeontologists. This exciting new for 2022 dinosaur model in the PNSO mid-size model range will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in June 2022. There is no need to pre-order this figure, no need to pay upfront and there is no need for a deposit, just join the Everything Dinosaur waitlist for this figure or email Everything Dinosaur to receive a no obligation, priority email alert when the dinosaur model is in stock.

The Everything Dinosaur PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor Waitlist

This fascinating and eagerly anticipated, new for 2022 dinosaur model in the PNSO mid-size model range will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in June 2022. There is no need to pre-order this figure, no need to pay upfront and there is no need for a deposit, just join the Everything Dinosaur waitlist for this figure or email Everything Dinosaur to receive a no obligation, priority email alert when the dinosaur model is in stock.

To join Everything Dinosaur’s priority notification list for Xinchuan the PNSO Sinraptor: Email Everything Dinosaur to Join Priority Notification List for PNSO Sinraptor Model.

Sinraptor dongi

Sinraptor dongi was formally named and described in 1994 from fossil material associated with the Shishugou Formation located in north-western China. The Shishugou Formation has yielded numerous dinosaur and pterosaur remains and the strata is believed to have been deposited between 165 to 155 million years ago (Middle to Late Jurassic). A second species assigned to the Sinraptor genus has been named (S. hepingensis from Gao [1992]), although the exact taxonomy of this second species remains controversial as it was originally named by Gao Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. Yanchuanosaurus and Sinraptor are closely related genera, yet their phylogeny and taxonomy has yet to be fully resolved.

PNSO Sinraptor dinosaur model
The PNSO Xinchuan Sinraptor dinosaur model in lateral view. The figure has all the appropriate test certificates and it will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur next month (June 2022).

To join the priority waitlist, simply visit Everything Dinosaur’s PNSO Age of Dinosaurs section of its website and if you are an account holder you can join the waitlist on the PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor product page.

To view the range of PNSO models and replicas in stock at Everything Dinosaur and to find the PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor product page: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

29 05, 2022

Fires Started by “Raptors”

By | May 29th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Key Stage 3/4, Main Page, Photos, Teaching, TV Reviews|0 Comments

In episode four (Ice Worlds) of the acclaimed television series “Prehistoric Planet”, a troodontid dinosaur is depicted deliberately spreading a forest fire. Is this behaviour plausible? This Apple TV+ series has been praised for depicting prehistoric animals not as movie monsters but as animals capable of complex behaviours as seen in living relatives. The behaviour of many of the dinosaurs in the documentary series reflects behaviour observed and documented in birds.

The clever troodontid from the television series "Prehistoric Planet"
The feathered troodontid, regarded as one of the cleverest non-avian dinosaurs to have evolved, searches for a smouldering ember in order to start a fire elsewhere in the forest. Picture credit: Apple TV Plus.

Lead scientific consultant for the five-part, nature documentary series, vertebrate palaeontologist and author Darren Naish has used his extensive knowledge of the living world to create realistic scenarios illustrating behaviours of long extinct creatures.

For example, the troodontid is depicted carefully selecting a burning ember and carrying it to another, as yet unburnt, part of the forest in order to deliberately start a fire. Fire starting is a behaviour that has been observed in some species of birds.

Troodontid on the prowl (Prehistoric Planet Apple TV Plus)
A troodontid patrols the edge of a forest fire in a northern, Late Cretaceous forest. Small animals fleeing the flames would make an easy target for this hunter, but did it deliberately carry smouldering embers to create further fires as part of its hunting strategy? Picture credit: Apple TV Plus.

Forest Fires Provide an Opportunity for Hunters

Flames and smoke from a forest fire, presumably started by lightning would cause animals to flee and a hunter like a troodontid could patrol the fringes of the fire and ambush any small mammal, lizards or birds that had been panicked and were attempting to avoid the flames.

In the scene which features the troodontid, this clever little dinosaur (troodontids having relatively large brains in proportion to their body size), chooses an ember and deliberately carries it to another part of the forest to in order to spread the fire.

A troodontid carries a smouldering stick.
In the television episode the troodontid is shown carrying an ember from the forest fire. It drops the ember in a part of the forest not yet ablaze in a bid to flush out more potential prey. Picture credit: Apple TV Plus.

Australian Fire Hawks

Indigenous Australians have reported that certain types of bird intentionally spread fires in order to exploit feeding opportunities. People in northern Australia have considered the black kite (Milvus migrans), the whistling kite (Haliastur sphenurus) and the brown falcon (Falco berigora) to be “fire hawks” picking up smouldering debris moving it some distance and then dropping it in a bid to spread the conflagration. Some of the observations and anecdotes were reported in a scientific paper published in the “Journal of Ethnobiology”.

The paper attempted to document evidence supporting the theory that many birds of prey used fires to help them find food, making easy meals out of insects and other small animals attempting to avoid the blaze.

A successful hunt for a troodontid
A successful hunt. The intelligent and resourceful troodontid claims its prize. Picture credit: Apple TV Plus.

Co-author of the scientific paper, which was published in 2017, Mark Bonta (Pennsylvania State University), commented:

“We’re not discovering anything. Most of the data that we’ve worked with is collaborative with Aboriginal peoples. They’ve known this for probably 40,000 years or more.”

Other Scientists are Sceptical

Some experts have expressed scepticism, whether these birds were intentionally spreading fires or were seen to pick up sticks as a consequence of darting down to capture prey but missing their intended target.

Anthony Molyneux of the Alice Springs Desert Park commented:

“If [hawks] have missed the prey and perhaps grabbed a stick, they will drop that stick or rock. If the stick is smouldering or on fire, then it will start another fire.”

In a 2016 interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Bob Gosford, an Australian indigenous-rights lawyer and ornithologist explained that these raptors thrive in areas where wildfires are common.

In the interview he stated:

“It’s a feeding frenzy, because out of these grasslands come small birds, lizards, insects, everything fleeing the front of the fire.”

There have been many first-hand accounts of hawks and other birds of prey picking up burning sticks in their claws and dropping them in a fresh area of dry grass several hundred metres away to start another fire.

No one can ever know whether troodontids or other theropod dinosaurs indulged in this fire-spreading behaviour, but research is on-going to determine whether their close relatives (birds) deliberately spread fires.

It certainly made an intriguing and thought-provoking segment in the documentary series.

The scientific paper: “Intentional Fire-Spreading by “Firehawk” Raptors in Northern Australia” by Mark Bonta, Robert Gosford, Dick Eussen, Nathan Ferguson, Erana Loveless, Maxwell Witwer published in the Journal of Ethnobiology.

28 05, 2022

The Rebor “Extinction” Library

By | May 28th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

The news that Rebor will introduce two new, highly innovative Velociraptor models into their Rebor Oddities range has certainly got tongues wagging. Team members have been busy responding to emails from customers about these figures over the last few days.

Rebor Oddities "Extinction" Victorian Neoclassical Marble
Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Velociraptor in neoclassical marble. Lots of requests to reserve the Rebor Oddities “Extinction” figures have been received and customers have also been curious to learn more about the books the Velociraptor is perched upon.

One recurring question has cropped up over and over again, customers have been keen to see a list of the books that the contemplative theropod is sitting on. As the Velociraptor considers the human skull that it is holding in its right hand, it is obviously a scholar, at least judging by the volumes contained in its library.

Rebor Oddities "Extinction" Renaissance Bronze
Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Velociraptor. The dinosaur reflects on the human skull it is holding. It is deep in thought as it perches on an eclectic collection of books.

The Rebor “Extinction” Book List

In total, twenty-three books are featured in these intriguing sculpts. They are a combination of fiction and factual publications, each one, arguably representing a significant moment in the history of the written word.

Our list:

  • Hamlet by William Shakespeare.
  • The Lost World by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first published in 1912.
  • Vulgate Latin Bible – a 4th century translation of early Christian texts by Jerome of Stridon which was to become the official religious text adopted by the Catholic Church.
  • Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton (later Sir Isaac Newton), published in 1687.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes first published in 1651. Also known as “The Matter, Forme and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil” it outlines a political philosophy whereby the population enter into a form of social contract with an absolute ruler.
  • A Treatise of Human Nature by the Scottish philosopher David Hume, first published in 1739. The full title of this book is “A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects”.
  • The Time Machine by H. G. Wells published in 1895.
  • The Divine Comedy by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri published in the early 14th century.
  • The Decameron by the 14th Century Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio which recounts the stories told by a group of young people as they shelter from the Black Death.
  • The Geological Story Briefly Told.
  • The Poems of Longfellow – a compilation of the work of the American poet Henry W. Longfellow.
  • Zoological Philosophy by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck first published in 1809 which outlined a theory of inherited characteristics passed on from generation to generation.
  • The Prince published in the early 16th century by the Italian diplomat and politician Niccolò Machiavelli. It outlined the methods employed by people in power to keep their influential positions and justified the use of unethical and immoral means to achieve success.
  • Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë first published in 1847.
  • Stratigraphical Palaeontology: A Study of Ancient Provinces.
  • Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body – after Henry Gray a comprehensive guide to human anatomy published in 1858.
  • The Critical Review – published in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, a periodical that reviewed newly published books written by a diverse range of leading academics and public figures.
  • The Natural History.
  • Frankenstein by Mary Shelley written in 1818.
  • Lyrics of the Heart: with Other Poems a collection of the work of the English poet and journalist Alaric Alexander Watts
  • Meyers Konversations-Lexikon an encyclopaedia of the German language by Joseph Meyers.
  • On the Origin of Species – the ground-breaking work by Charles Darwin (later Sir Charles Darwin) that outlines his theory of natural selection (first published in 1859).
  • History of the World – possibly the six-volume history of the world in Hungarian published between 1906 and 1908 by Endrei Zalán.

Perhaps, the number twenty-three is also significant. In our species Homo sapiens, most of us have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes in our cells.

Rebor Oddities "Extinction" Victorian Neoclassical Marble
Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Velociraptor in neoclassical marble. In total, twenty-three published works are illustrated on this Rebor figure.

To view the range of Rebor models and figures currently in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Models and Figures.

27 05, 2022

A Basal Iguanodontian from Southern China

By | May 27th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Scientists have named and described a new genus of basal iguanodontian from the Xinlong Formation of southern China. The dinosaur has been named Napaisaurus guangxiensis. It is the first, basal iguanodontian taxa described from southern China.

Napaisaurus guangxiensis fossil material.
Holotype fossil material of Napaisaurus (N. guangxiensis) is a right ilium and ischium found in 2020. It is the first, basal iguanodontian taxa from southern China. Picture credit: Ji and Zhang.

Fossils Found in 2020

Partial hip bones (a right ilium and a right ischium) from a single individual animal were discovered in 2020 from excavations undertaken in strata associated with the Aptian-aged, Xinlong Formation of Napai Basin, Fusui County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China. The dinosaur’s name translates as Napai Basin lizard from Guangxi and its discovery adds to the dinosaur biota (sauropods, spinosaurids and carcharodontosaurids) associated with the Xinlong Formation.

Team members at Everything Dinosaur, estimate that based on the partial hip bones, the Napaisaurus specimen would have been around four metres in length.

Scale drawing of Napaisaurus
A scale drawing of Napaisaurus guangxiensis. This basal iguanodontian is estimated to be around four metres in length.

Comparing Dinosaur Biotas from China and North-eastern Thailand

The official journal publication announcing the discovery of this new Early Cretaceous herbivore was published earlier this year, but it was made available on-line in 2021.

The fossils permit an iguanodontian to be added to the dinosaur biota associated with the Xinlong Formation and it provides important evidence helping palaeontologists to better understand the relationship between the Lower Cretaceous fossils of the Napai Basin (Xinlong Formation) and those associated with contemporaneous deposits from northern China and the Khorat Group of north-eastern Thailand. Specifically, the naming of Napaisaurus adds a definitive iguanodontian to the Xinlong Formation biota, thus permitting a more detailed comparison with the ornithischian dinosaurs associated with the Aptian-aged Khok Kruat Formation (the uppermost member of the Khorat Group), from which several iguanodontian ornithopods have been described (Ratchasimasaurus, Siamodon, Sirindhorna).

The scientific paper: “First new genus and species of basal iguanodontian dinosaur (Ornithischia: Ornithopoda) from southern China” by S. Ji and P. Zhang published in Acta Geoscientica Sinica.

26 05, 2022

PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor

By | May 26th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

PNSO have announced that they will be adding a replica of a Sinraptor to their mid-size prehistoric animal model range. Everything Dinosaur have known about this new dinosaur model for some time and confirm that it will be in stock in just a few weeks.

PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor figure.
Sinraptor dongi was formally named and described in 1994. The species name is in honour of the eminent Professor Dong Zhiming, one of China’s most celebrated palaeontologists.

A Chinese Theropod Dinosaur

Sinraptor (S. dongi) was named and scientifically described in 1994. The genus name translates as “Robber from China”, so it is highly appropriate for PNSO to add a replica of this Jurassic predator to their already extensive mid-size model range. The specific or trivial name honours the eminent Chinese palaeontologist Professor Dong Zhiming. Although it has the term “raptor” included in the genus name, it was not related to “raptors” (dromaeosaurs). It has been classified as a member of the Carnosauria clade, specifically a member of the Allosauroidea and within this superfamily it is defined as a metriacanthosaurid and thought to be closely related to another Chinese taxon Yangchuanosaurus.

PNSO Sinraptor dinosaur model
The stunning PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor dinosaur model.

PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor Model Measurements

This new for 2022 dinosaur model measures 21.6 cm in length and the model stands around 8.3 cm tall. PNSO do not declare a scale for their mid-size models, however, team members estimate a scale of 1:35 based on the original size estimates given for the holotype specimen.

PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor model measurements.
Xinchuan the Sinraptor model measures 21.6 cm long and the figure stands around 8.3 cm high.

Posters, Full-colour Booklet and an Articulated Jaw

The Sinraptor figure is supplied with a transparent, plastic support stand, a full-colour, 64-page illustrated booklet and a poster that highlights the palaeoart of Zhao Chuang. This superb dinosaur model also has an articulated lower jaw.

PNSO Sinraptor dinosaur model.
The PNSO Sinraptor model is supplied with a clear, plastic support stand and comes with posters and a 64-page, fully illustrated booklet.
PNSO Xinchuan Sinraptor model has an articulated lower jaw.
Sinraptor has been classified as a member of the allosauroid group of theropod dinosaurs, specifically it has been classified as a member of the Metriacanthosauridae. The PNSO Xinchuan Sinraptor model has an articulated lower jaw.

Available from Everything Dinosaur in Just a Few Weeks

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We had known about this model for several months, as a result, we arranged to bring stock of this figure in with our next shipment of PNSO figures. We expect to have the Sinraptor model in stock along with Fergus the Acrocanthosaurus replica in just a few weeks.”

PNSO Sinraptor dinosaur model
The PNSO Xinchuan Sinraptor dinosaur model in lateral view.

To view the current range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

25 05, 2022

Argentina’s “Dragon of Death”

By | May 25th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Researchers have named the largest pterosaur found to date in South America. The giant Thanatosdrakon (T. amaru) is estimated to have had a wingspan of around nine metres and it would have stood as tall as a giraffe.

Writing in the academic journal “Cretaceous Research”, the scientists, have assigned Thanatosdrakon to the Azhdarchidae family of pterosaurs and postulate that it was closely related to the slightly larger and geologically younger Quetzalcoatlus, fossils of which are known from North America.

Left humerus of Thanatosdrakon
The paratype fossil, a giant left humerus (UNCUYO-LD 350) is carefully cleaned at the dig site. Picture credit: Reuters/ICB-CONICET/UNCUYO.

One of the Largest Flying Vertebrates Known

The fossil material, thought to represent two individual pterosaurs was found in the upper-most levels of the Plottier Formation (upper Coniacian–lower Santonian, Neuquén Basin), Mendoza, western Argentina. The researchers, who include CONICET* researcher Dr Leonardo Ortiz David, Dr Bernardo González Riga, director of the Laboratory and Museum of Dinosaurs of the Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences and world-renowned pterosaur expert Dr Alexander Kellner (Director of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), estimate that Thanatosdrakon lived around 86 million years ago. Based on the single, huge left humerus of the paratype (UNCUYO-LD 350), a wingspan of around 9 metres is proposed, making Thanatosdrakon amaru one of the largest flying vertebrates known to science.

Thanatosdrakon Size Comparison
Comparing the estimated wingspans of the paratype and holotype fossil material associated with Thanatosdrakon amaru with large, extant birds. Picture credit: ICB-CONICET/UNCUYO.

Exceptionally Preserved Fossils

A civil construction project had uncovered some of the fossils. A field team was despatched to map the site and to recover the exceptionally well-preserved bones. The fossil material consists of vertebrae and bones from the limbs. As the larger humerus was found in close proximity to the other fossils, the scientists have speculated that this huge animal was social and probably lived in flocks.

Thanatosdrakon is the oldest taxon of the clade Quetzalcoatlinae so far described. As the strata containing the fossil bones represent deposition in a floodplain environment with ephemeral meandering streams and rivers, the researchers conclude that like the much later Quetzalcoatlus, Thanatosdrakon inhabited continental, inland areas.

Thanatosdrakon skeletal material.
Skeletal reconstructions of Thanatosdrakon amaru. The holotype fossil material (UNCUYO-LD 307) and the left humerus paratype (UNCUYO-LD 350). Picture credit: ICB-CONICET/UNCUYO.

Important Information on Azhdarchid Anatomy

The fossils are not distorted or flattened to any great degree. Their three-dimensional preservation will help the researchers to learn more about the anatomy of giant pterosaurs. In addition, some of the fossil bones such as the dorsosacral vertebrae and caudal vertebra along with the notarium (the structure formed by fusion of the dorsal vertebrae, seen in pterosaurs and birds), have never been described in giant azhdarchids. The researchers expect that further study of these bones will provide important information on azhdarchid anatomy.

The “Dragon of Death”

This large pterosaur probably hunted on the ground, perhaps stalking prey in a similar manner to the marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumenifer) which is found in sub-Saharan Africa. The genus name is derived from the Greek words thanatos which means death and drakon (dragon). The species name honours the Inca winged serpent (Amaru).

CONICET* (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research of Argentina]).

The scientific paper: “Thanatosdrakon amaru, gen. et sp. nov., a giant azhdarchid pterosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina” by Leonardo D. Ortiz David, Bernardo J. González Riga and Alexander W. A. Kellner published in the journal Cretaceous Research.

24 05, 2022

Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Figures

By | May 24th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Rebor has announced that they will be producing two, limited-edition prehistoric animal replicas in their Oddities series. The Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Renaissance Bronze and the Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Victorian Neoclassical Marble figures should be available in the autumn (2022).

Everything Dinosaur is offering customers the chance to join their no obligation, no deposit to pay, priority waitlist for these two innovative and highly original dinosaur models: Contact Everything Dinosaur to Receive Priority Email Alert.

Rebor Oddities "Extinction" Renaissance Bronze
Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Velociraptor. The Rebor Oddities “Extinction” figure in the renaissance bronze colouration should be available in the autumn (2022).

The Rebor Oddities Range

Rebor produces a wide range of figures and collectibles. The Rebor Oddities range consists of limited-edition, unusual and original items, that generally only have one production run. When the stock from the first run is sold out, then it is the usual practice for these items to be retired and withdrawn. Joining the Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Renaissance in the bronze colour scheme will be a second figure, the Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Victorian Neoclassical Marble.

Rebor Oddities "Extinction" Victorian Neoclassical Marble
Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Velociraptor in neoclassical marble. A striking and very unusual dinosaur model.

Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Renaissance Bronze

The clever and talented design team at Rebor draw inspiration for their models and figures from several sources. The Velociraptor is contemplating a human skull which is held in its right hand. It is sat on a chair that is composed of numerous volumes representing a diverse collection of the world’s literature.

Rebor Oddities "Extinction" Renaissance Bronze
Views of the Rebor Velociraptor “Extinction” figure in the bronze colour scheme.

These collector’s items remind us of Auguste Rodin’s famous sculpture “The Thinker”, also referred to as “Le Penseur”, which depicts a naked male figure perched on a stone pedestal. This famous statue was part of a larger commission entitled “The Gates of Hell” based on “The Divine Comedy” by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. This book “The Divine Comedy” is one of the volumes upon which the Velociraptor is perched.

Rebor Oddities "Extinction" Renaissance Bronze
A Velociraptor studying a human skull.

Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Victorian Neoclassical Marble

The Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Victorian Neoclassical Marble has a different finish to “Bronze”, both models are essentially the same detailed sculpt. The two figures measure 23 cm long, stand 13 cm high and are 10.5 cm wide.

Rebor Oddities "Extinction" Victorian Neoclassical Marble
Rebor Oddities “Extinction” Victorian in the neoclassical marble.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“These are two fascinating, original and highly creative figures, which have been skilfully made and we congratulate Rebor for pushing the boundaries when it comes to prehistoric animal replicas.”

Rebor Oddities "Extinction" Victorian Neoclassical Marble
Rebor Velociraptor Figure (neoclassical marble).

To join our no obligation, no deposit to pay, no pre-order required priority waitlist: Contact Everything Dinosaur.

To see the range of Rebor models currently in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Models and Figures.

23 05, 2022

Prehistoric Planet – Television Series

By | May 23rd, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Movie Reviews and Movie News, Photos, Press Releases|0 Comments

Tonight, sees the first episode of the stunning documentary series “Prehistoric Planet” being aired on Apple TV+. Five programmes will be shown over the next five nights, each one at around forty minutes in length, will focus on a different habitat, starting this evening with “coasts”. Subsequent programmes will look at the prehistoric ecosystems associated with deserts, freshwater, the polar dinosaurs (ice worlds) and the series concludes with an episode entitled “forests”.

Prehistoric Planet television series.
The television series “Prehistoric Planet” starts on May 23rd (2022). The programmes are narrated by Sir David Attenborough. Picture credit: Apple TV.

Narrated by Sir David Attenborough, executive producers Jon Favreau and Michael Gunton have set a new benchmark in natural history documentaries, following in the footsteps of the seminal BBC television series “Walking with Dinosaurs” that first hit our television screens back in 1997.

We at Everything Dinosaur would like to congratulate all those involved in this astonishing series that has been a decade in the making.

Enjoy.

22 05, 2022

Dzharaonyx eski – “Old Dzharakuduk Claw”

By | May 22nd, 2022|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Earlier this spring, a new taxon of alvarezsaurid theropod was described from well-preserved, postcranial remains found in Uzbekistan. The little dinosaur, measuring less than half a metre long, has been named Dzharaonyx eski, which translates as “old Dzharakuduk claw”.

Dzharaonyx eski scale drawing.
The cat-sized alvarezsaurid theropod Dzharaonyx eski from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. It is regarded as the geologically oldest member of the Parvicursorinae.

From the Bissekty Formation

Writing in the academic “Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology”, the researchers, including Hans-Dieter Sues (Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.), describe this cat-sized theropod based on bones from the spine including dorsal and caudal vertebrae, limb bones, parts of the pelvis and bones from the hand including the iconic, robust alvarezsaurid claws.

Dzharaonyx claw fossils.
Dzharaonyx eski a new taxon of alvarezsaurid from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. Picture credit: Averianov and Sues.

The fossils come from the Bissekty Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Turonian faunal stage) and D. eski is estimated to have lived around 91-92 million years ago. The dinosaur was named after the type locality (Dzharakuduk in south-central Uzbekistan). The species name “eski” is derived from the Uzbek word for “old”.

Pronounced Zar-ah-ra-on-niks es-key, a phylogenetic analysis of this newly described taxon places it within the alvarezsaurid subfamily the Parvicursorinae alongside other Asian members of the Alvarezsauridae such as Parvicursor (P. remotus) and Qiupanykus (Q. zhangi). Dzharaonyx eski is the oldest member of the Parvicursorinae known to science, it having lived at least 10 million years earlier than related species, fossils of which are confined to the Campanian and Maastrichtian faunal stages of the Late Cretaceous.

Alvarezsaurids were highly specialised theropods, with a single, powerful hand claw adapted for tearing and digging. It is thought that these small maniraptoran dinosaurs fed on colonial insects such as termites.

Recently, another Asian member of the Parvicursorinae was described from partial, postcranial material from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Barungoyot Formation in Mongolia. The alvarezsaurid has been named Ondogurvel alifanovi.

The scientific paper: “New material and diagnosis of a new taxon of alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan” by Alexander O. Averianov and Hans-Dieter Sues published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.

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