All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
12 04, 2024

New CollectA Polacanthus YouTube Video Nears Completion

By |2024-04-12T15:41:00+01:00April 12th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils, Press Releases|0 Comments

The new CollectA Polacanthus YouTube video is nearly complete. This video review will examine how accurately the model reflects the known fossil material.  A review of armoured dinosaur fossil specimens associated with the Wealden Group is continuing.  Isolated dermal armour fossils from southern England and the Isle of Wight may not necessarily represent the Polacanthus taxon.  With the arrival of a new CollectA Polacanthus figure this year, team members have taken the opportunity to create a short YouTube video outlining the changing perceptions regarding Polacanthus foxii.

How accurate is the new CollectA Polacanthus?

How accurate is the new for 2024 CollectA Polacanthus? In a new video Everything Dinosaur team members take a look at the science behind this new CollectA Deluxe scale model. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Reviewing the CollectA Polacanthus

Everything Dinosaur were fortunate to be sent an early prototype of the figure.  This figure has been used in our video review.  It is a 3D print, and it has been painted in accordance with the production figure’s approved colour scheme.  However, it is approximately the same size as the production model, albeit the model has two drainage holes located on its underside.

To view the current range of CollectA Deluxe prehistoric animal figures in stock: CollectA Prehistoric Animal Scale Models.

A spokesperson explained that as the material representing members of the Thyreophora was being reviewed, so it was likely that more taxa of British armoured dinosaurs would be erected.  The spokesperson outlined that the Thyreophora was a clade.  It consists of ornithischian armoured dinosaurs.  To date, three armoured dinosaur taxa are associated with the Wealden Group, these dinosaurs are:

  • Hylaeosaurus (H. armatus) named by Mantell in 1833.
  • Polacanthus (P. foxii) named in 1865.
  • Vectipelta (V. barretti) named in 2023.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s blog post about the scientific description of Vectipelta barrettiVectipelta Honours Natural History Museum Palaeontologist.

Polacanthus fossils.

Fragmentary and eroded armoured dinosaur fossils on display at Liverpool Museum. These fossils have been assigned to Polacanthus foxii. However, palaeontologists have become less confident over assigning armoured dinosaur fossils from the Wealden Group to a specific taxon.  Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Completing the CollectA Deluxe Polacanthus Video

The video consists of several pieces of narration including a short segment that explains the history of Polacanthus research.  In addition, the video highlights some of the confusing perceptions that arose following the first scientific reconstruction of Polacanthus in 1905 (Nopcsa).  Fortunately, the review of the figure has been concluded.  This section has proved to be the most difficult part of the video to create.  The work entailed undertaking an examination of the CollectA model and comparing it to the holotype fossil material.

The CollectA Polacanthus YouTube video review should be live on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube site in a few days.

Visit the Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Toys and Models.

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube Channel.

11 04, 2024

New Study of Ancient Jawless Fish Suggests They were Filter-feeders

By |2024-04-10T14:47:06+01:00April 11th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Newly published research has demonstrated that early, jawless fish (agnathans), used bony plates surrounding their mouths to modify the mouth’s shape whilst feeding.  CT scans of a three-dimensionally preserved Rhinopteraspis fossil suggest that these early vertebrates were suspension feeders, not hunters or scavengers.  The study, led by scientists from the University of Birmingham helps to improve our understanding of the evolution of feeding ecology.  The Devonian pteraspidid heterostracan Rhinopteraspis dunensis, the jawless fish studied, was probably a nektonic filter-feeder.

Rhinopteraspis fossil.

The anterior portion of a three-dimensionally preserved Rhinopteraspis dunensis specimen. CT scans of the fossilised remains of this Devonian fish enabled scientists to study feeding ecology. Picture credit: University of Birmingham.

Studying the Feeding Behaviours of Early Vertebrates

Scientists often use the inferred feeding behaviours of early vertebrates to help piece together the evolution of Vertebrata.  Different jaw morphologies and jaw composition can suggest a wide range of feeding strategies.  In the jawless fishes many competing theories have been proposed for their feeding habits.  For example, scientists have examined whether these animals were passive feeders or active hunters.

A new paper, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B reconstructs the feeding apparatus of the Devonian pteraspidid Rhinopteraspis dunensis.  Computerised tomography enabled the research team to construct 3D models of the fish’s mouth.  The images revealed the structure and arrangement of finger-like bones that project from the lower “lip” of the animal’s mouth.  The researchers suggest that these projections controlled the mouth’s size and shape as it filtered food particles from the water.

Senior author and project lead Dr Ivan Sansom (University of Birmingham) stated:

“The application of CT scanning techniques to the study of fossil fish is revealing so much new information about these ancient vertebrates and giving us the opportunity to study precious and unique specimens without destructive investigation.”

Rhinopteraspis fossil.

Three-dimensional reconstruction of the oral region of Rhinopteraspis dunensis (NHMUK PV P 73217). Picture credit: University of Birmingham.

A Remarkable Rhinopteraspis Fossil

The Rhinopteraspis fossil used in the study is part of the London Natural History Museum fossil collection. It is specimen number NHMUK PV P 73217. It consists of an almost complete anterior portion of the animal. The entire headshield is present along with body scales. Although the Rhinopteraspis fossil has been compressed laterally, elements associated with the oral cavity appear to have maintained their original shape and relative location.

Dr Richard Dearden (University of Birmingham) and lead author of the study explained:

“In this case, these methods have allowed us to fit all of the small bones of this animal’s mouth together, and try and understand how it fed from this integrated system rather than by using isolated bones. Instead of a steady trend towards ‘active food acquisition’ – scavenging or hunting – we see a real diversity and range of feeding behaviours among our earliest vertebrate relatives.”

To read a related article that questioned whether heterostracans were suspension feeders: New Study Features Extremely Old Vertebrate.

Bony Plates with Limited Movement

The mineralised plates around the mouth had limited movement.  It is unlikely that these early vertebrates were hunters capable of biting.  Many Pteraspidiformes had elongated, bony snouts this would have made it difficult to strain food particles from sediment.  However, the mouth plates would have allowed it to control the opening of the mouth, and perhaps strain food from water in a way also used by animals such as flamingos or mussels.

This new study offers a new perspective on the evolution of feeding strategies in early vertebrates.  Many current hypotheses argue that there was a long-term evolutionary trend away from passive food collection and consumption to predatory behaviour.  This research challenges these earlier theories and suggests that primitive fish had a broad range of different feeding behaviours long before the evolution of a jaw structure.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Birmingham in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “The three-dimensionally articulated oral apparatus of a Devonian heterostracan sheds light on feeding in Palaeozoic jawless fishes” by Richard P. Dearden, Andy S. Jones, Sam Giles, Agnese Lanzetti, Madleen Grohganz, Zerina Johanson, Stephan Lautenschlager, Emma Randle, Philip C. J. Donoghue and Ivan J. Sansom published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

The Everything Dinosaur website: Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

10 04, 2024

Twelve New Australian Sauropods Described

By |2024-04-10T19:08:17+01:00April 10th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Twelve new Australian sauropods have been classified following a comprehensive reassessment of Winton Formation fossil remains.  Twelve new sauropod fossil specimens from the Winton Formation (Queensland, Australia) have been described. The extensive review, which involved CT scanning hundreds of fossil bones, has resolved the known sauropods from the Winton Formation into three distinct taxa.

Assessment of Twelve New Australian Sauropods Confirms Three Taxa

The taxa are Diamantinasaurus matildae, Savannasaurus elliottorum and Wintonotitan wattsi. A fourth sauropod, Australotitan cooperensis is now considered an indeterminate diamantinasaurian. The review suggests that the material previously assigned to A. cooperensis might represent a Diamantinasaurus. If this is the case, then Diamantinasaurus was capable of growing much larger than earlier studies indicated. A. cooperensis may become nomen dubium (dubious scientific name not widely recognised).

Twelve Australian sauropods described.

PhD candidate Samantha Beeston scanning Diamantinasaurus fossil material.  Picture credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History.

Picture credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History

The ground-breaking study into these enormous, ground-shaking dinosaurs was led by University of College London PhD candidate Samantha Beeston in collaboration with the Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History. Beeston’s research was conducted as part of her Master’s thesis at Swinburne University of Technology, under the supervision of Dr Stephen Poropat (now at the Western Australian Organic and Isotope Geochemistry Centre, Curtin University). The paper has been published in the open-access journal PeerJ.

Australotitan cooperensis life reconstruction

A life reconstruction of Australotitan cooperensis, the largest known animal to have ever lived in Australia. A reassessment of the fossilised bones suggests that A. cooperensis might be nomen dubium as the fossil remains could represent a very large specimen of Diamantinasaurus matildae.  Picture credit: Queensland Museum.

Picture credit: Queensland Museum

To read an earlier blog article (2015) about titanosaur fossil remains later named A. cooperensis awaiting scientific description: Super-sized Aussie Titanosaur Awaits Scientific Description.

Twelve new Australian sauropods described.

A sauropod excavation site photographed in 2011.  Picture credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History.

Picture credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History

Three Australian Sauropods

The researchers were able to assign two new specimens to Diamantinasaurus matildae. In addition, two specimens were assigned to Savannasaurus elliottorum with three more being assigned to Wintonotitan wattsi. The other five specimens are too incomplete to classify at the genus level. They have been described as indeterminate diamantinasaurians.  A lack of comparable specimens with overlapping bones has hampered precise classification of these five specimens.

The three recognised Winton Formation sauropod taxa are:

  • Diamantinasaurus matildae – named in 2009 (Hocknull et al).
  • Savannasaurus elliottorum – named in 2016 (Poropat et al).
  • Wintonotitan wattsi – named in 2009 in the same scientific paper as D. matildae and the theropod Australovenator wintonensis (Hocknull et al).

Over five hundred sauropod bones were scanned as part of this research. This innovative approach enabled the scientists to evaluate each bone and compare it to other fossil specimens in the Museum’s extensive collection. The study has led to a better understanding of the unique traits that help to separate known species.  Student Samantha Beeston explained that as there are so few bones preserved for Australotitan it makes it very difficult, if not impossible to assign new specimens to it, or to differentiate it from any of the other Winton Formation sauropod taxa.

She added: “Due to the limited fossil evidence for Australotitan, resolving its classification will be challenging.”

Twevel new Australian sauropods described in new study.

Student Samantha Beeston scanning the toe bone of Diamantinasaurus.  Picture credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History.

Picture credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History

Significant for Australian Palaeontology

David Elliott, the Executive Chairman of the Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History commented that he was delighted to have more sauropod specimens in the Museum’s collection assigned to distinct species. He explained that having a better understanding of autapomorphies and anatomical traits leading to more confident assignment of taxa was a significant leap forward in Australian palaeontological research.  The twelve new Australian sauropods would provide the basis for further research into the dinosaurs of the Winton Formation.

He added:

“These dinosaurs help demonstrate the diverse natural history of Australia during the Cretaceous Period and will become important exhibits at the new Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History.”

The "Devil Dave" sauropod site (2017).

Volunteers work at the “Devil Dave” sauropod excavation site (2017).  Picture credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History.

Picture credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the Australia Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Reappraisal of sauropod dinosaur diversity in the Upper Cretaceous Winton Formation of Queensland, Australia, through 3D digitisation and description of new specimens” by Samantha L. Beeston​, Stephen F. Poropat, Philip D. Mannion, Adele H. Pentland, Mackenzie J. Enchelmaier, Trish Sloan and David A. Elliott published in PeerJ.

The Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Models and Toys.

8 04, 2024

A Colourful Stegosaurus at Quince Tree Day Nursery

By |2024-04-10T09:32:36+01:00April 8th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Early Years Foundation Reception, Educational Activities, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

At Everything Dinosaur, we get sent lots of pictures, photographs and artwork from dinosaur fans.  The budding young palaeontologists at Quince Tree Day Nursery (Essex), created a colourful classroom Stegosaurus and they were eager to show our dinosaur experts their armoured dinosaur illustration.  The Stegosaurus seems quite happy in its forest home.  As a plant-eater it would certainly have enough food to eat.  This Jurassic giant probably spent most of its time eating.  A fully-grown Stegosaurus was around nine metres long and it loved its greens.  Our dinosaur experts estimate that this herbivore would have eaten around ten kilograms of plants every day!

Quince Tree Day Nursery Stegosaurus.

The children and teachers at Quince Tree Day Nursery in Essex have created a super Stegosaurus. The nursery recently rated as “Outstanding” by Ofsted, have placed their Stegosaurus in a forest, We are sure this plant-eater will be happy with so many plants to eat. Picture credit: Quince Tree Day Nursery.

Picture credit: Quince Tree Day Nursery

Dinosaur Artwork on Display at Quince Tree Day Nursery

The children and teachers at the day nursery have added plates to the back of their Stegosaurus.  In addition, the dinosaur has plates on his neck and around his head.  Quince Tree Day Nursery provides care for children from six weeks to five years of age. The dedicated staff work hard to create a supportive and nurturing environment for the children.  Many youngsters obsess on the Dinosauria, and we often amazed by their knowledge when we get to meet them.

A recent Ofsted inspection of Quince Tree Day Nursery (January 2024) rated this nursery as “Outstanding”.

Stegosaurus lived in the Late Jurassic.  The world looked very different compared to today.  For example, flowering plants had probably not evolved.  However, Stegosaurus would have eaten plants that you can still see today, plants like horsetails.


Stegosaurus lived in a world with very few (if any) flowers.  It munched on horsetails and other plants.  Horsetails (Equisetum) continue to thrive as they are able to grow in areas where other plants would find it difficult to get a foothold. Often regarded as weeds, these tough little plants are essentially living fossils as the earliest examples of the genus Equisetum date from the Early Jurassic of South America. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur congratulated the teachers and children at the nursery for the stunning Stegosaurus artwork.

Our thanks to Rachael for sending into us the delightful photograph.

For a further information on Stegosaurus and free Stegosaurus drawing materials: Contact Everything Dinosaur.

7 04, 2024

The Stunning Scolosaurus cutleri – An Ankylosaur with Skin

By |2024-04-10T11:09:46+01:00April 7th, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The preserved remains of an ankylosaur represents one of the most spectacular dinosaur fossil specimens on display at the London Natural History Museum.  Although large, this wonderful armoured dinosaur is often overlooked by visitors.  Like many of the Museum’s exhibits it is poorly lit.  This is Scolosaurus cutleri (NHMUK R5161) and it is probably one of the most amazing ornithischian dinosaur fossils ever found.

The stunning Scolosaurus cutleri specimen (NHMUK R5161).

The stunning Scolosaurus cutleri specimen on display at the London Natural History Museum. The specimen (NHMUK R5161) discovered in Alberta, Canada is one of the best preserved ankylosaurid specimens known to science. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Scolosaurus cutleri (NHMUK R5161)

Scolosaurus (S. cutleri) was named and described by Baron Franz Nopcsa in 1928. The spectacular fossil material on display at the Museum represents the holotype. The specimen is nearly complete. Although, the skull, the end of the tail and limbs from the right side of the animal are missing.  It was excavated from a bedding plane associated with the lower portions of the Dinosaur Park Formation (Alberta, Canada). The specimen was discovered by commercial fossil hunter William Edmund Cutler in 1914.  Unfortunately, during the excavation work, an attempt to remove material from underneath the fossils resulted in the specimen collapsing on Cutler.  He suffered extensive injuries to his chest.

Scolosaurus cutleri (NHMUK R5161)

A close-up view of the preserved skin impression associated with the S. cutleri fossil specimen NHMUK R5161. This amazing fossil is on display at the London Natural History Museum. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Skin of an Ankylosaurid

NHMUK R5161 is on display in the public galleries. An extensive amount of the integument is preserved as skin impressions. The picture (above) shows the osteoderms preserved on the back of the animal. Ribs can be seen at the top of the photograph. Osteoderms are not connected to bone. They form in the dermis and as a result, most osteoderms are found as isolated pieces of the skeleton. This Scolosaurus cutleri specimen shows them in life position.

Classified as a member of the subfamily Ankylosaurini, it was related to other North American ankylosaurids such as Ankylosaurus magniventris and Euoplocephalus tutus. Phylogenetic analysis places Scolosaurus as the sister taxon to Ziapelta (Ziapelta sanjuanensis) from New Mexico.

To read an earlier Everything Dinosaur article about the discovery of Ziapelta: New Armoured Dinosaur from New Mexico.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that the Scolosaurus cutleri (NHMUK R5161) had been the inspiration behind the dermal armour configuration on numerous armoured dinosaur models.

PNSO Ankylosaurus "Sede".

“Sede” the Ankylosaurus (PNSO).  The dermal armour on this dinosaur model was most probably inspired by the Scolosaurus cutleri holotype material.

The picture (above) shows the PNSO Ankylosaurus dinosaur model.  The dermal armour on this figure has most probably been inspired by the Scolosaurus holotype material.

To view the range of PNSO prehistoric animal figures available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Prehistoric Animal Models.

Remembering William Edmund Cutler

The spokesperson added:

“When we visit the Museum, we always like to say hello to the Scolosaurus specimen.  It is a spectacular fossil.  We spare a few moments to consider how dangerous fossil collecting can be.  This is one dinosaur that proved to be capable of still severely injuring a person some seventy-four million years after the ankylosaurid died.  If it were not for the efforts of many commercial fossil hunters today, other amazing dinosaur specimens would be lost to science.”

Visit the award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Toys and Prehistoric Animal Models.

6 04, 2024

Excellent Record for Customer Service Maintained

By |2024-04-08T09:26:26+01:00April 6th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur has maintained its excellent reputation for customer service by picking up even more 5-star Feefo reviews in 2024.  The award-winning, UK-based mail order company has maintained its 5-star rating for customer service in the first quarter of 2024.

5-star Feefo reviews for Everything Dinosaur.

Everything Dinosaur has maintained its top rating for customer service with over 290 5-star Feefo reviews. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

5-star Feefo Reviews

Feefo is an independent customer service rating company.  They have thousands of companies benefitting from their services.  They provide a medium which permits companies to generate genuine customer reviews and feedback.  These reviews are then read by website visitors and potential customers, they demonstrate that the company can be trusted.  Everything Dinosaur has received 295 reviews of which 291 were 5-star reviews.  Five-star reviews represent 98.6% of all received reviews.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Feedback from customers is very important to us.  The more we know about our customers the more we can tailor what we offer to meet their needs. Trusted reviews such as these from Feefo give our website visitors and our customers confidence. By building trust we build loyal customers and champions for the Everything Dinosaur brand.”

Although Feefo supports the activities of many retailers, Everything Dinosaur remains one of Feefo’s top performing companies in terms of customer service.

5-star Feefo reviews and top marks in retail for Everything Dinosaur.

Everything Dinosaur is one of the highest ranked retailers worldwide for customer service according to Feefo. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

High Marks Amongst Retailers

Everything Dinosaur is amongst the highest ranked retailers on Feefo listings for excellence in customer service.  The picture (above) shows the listing for Platinum Trusted Service Award winners which have maintained the highest ratings for customer service in the Feefo category of retailers.  Everything Dinosaur is one of the highest rated companies worldwide.

Feefo is a leading provider of customer insight and reviews. The highest award for customer service offered by Feefo is the Platinum Trusted Service award. This honour was introduced in 2020 and Everything Dinosaur has won this award every year that it has been available.

Platinum Trusted Service Award 2024

Everything Dinosaur has won the Feefo Platinum Trusted Service Award for 2024.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The spokesperson added that team members were immensely proud of their achievements but were keen to work even harder to keep customers happy.

Visit the award-winning and highly rated Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Toys and Models.

5 04, 2024

A New Study into the Pathology and Diseases of Predatory Dinosaurs

By |2024-04-05T10:20:47+01:00April 5th, 2024|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

A new study has provided fresh insights into the pathologies associated with predatory dinosaurs.  Researchers have examined in forensic detail the pathologies associated with three South American abelisaurids.  In addition, the scientists have compiled a comprehensive database of theropod dinosaur fossil pathologies.  This database may shed light on the behaviour of different types of theropod.  For example, allosaurids had a great frequency of fractures.  This suggests that these carnivorous dinosaurs were extremely active, and this might infer a relation to hunting strategies and behaviours.  It may also indicate the type of prey that allosaurids tackled.

The three abelisaurid dinosaurs examined in this research were Elemgasem nubilus, Aucasaurus garridoi and Quilmesaurus curriei.  These three predatory dinosaurs all lived in Patagonia during the Late Cretaceous.

Diseases identified in predatory dinosaurs.

Life reconstruction of the abelisaurs involved in this study. Aucasaurus garridoi (A) MCF-PVPH-236 (congenital malformation in anterior caudal vertebrae). Elemgasem nubilus (B) MCF-PVPH-380 (spondyloarthropathy in middle and posterior caudal elements). Quilmesaurus curriei(C) MPCA-PV-100 (possible pathology in the right tibia).  Picture credit: Alessio Ciaffi.

Picture credit: Alessio Ciaffi

The research project conducted by scientists from CONICET has revealed new details of the pathologies associated with theropods. The research has been published in the journal BMC Ecology and Evolution.

A Study Consisting of Three Phases

The palaeontologists noticed deformations on the external surface of some bones at a macroscopic level, especially in the caudal vertebrae of the Elemgasem and Aucasaurus specimens. This finding led to the hypothesis that these deformations resulted from possible pathologies.  The team decided to conduct a more detailed examination of the morphology of the fossilised bones. The internal structure was also examined at the microscopic level.

The research programme was split into three distinct phases. Firstly, the external structure of the bones showing potential pathologies was examined. Secondly, bone histology on the Quilmesaurus and Elemgasem specimens was undertaken whilst CT scans were carried out on the Aucasaurus fossils to evaluate how possible pathologies had affected surrounding tissues.

Aucasaurus garridoi pathology.

A specimen of the abelisaurid Aucasaurus garridoi was found to have a congenital developmental disease, despite which the animal was able to live for many years. Picture credit: Alessio Ciaffi.

Picture credit: Alessio Ciaffi

A Database of Diseases and other Pathologies of Predatory Dinosaurs

The detailed analysis revealed three distinct types of pathologies. The Aucasaurus specimen had a congenital developmental disease, which indicated that this individual was born with a malformation that, despite this, allowed the animal to live for many years.  In the case of Elemgasem, spondyloarthropathy or spondyloarthritis was diagnosed, a disease also present in humans, which causes the fusion of vertebrae and the consequent inflammation. On the other hand, the Quilmesaurus specimen showed signs of some pathology that could not be precisely determined. This pathology seemed different from those identified in the other two abelisaurids.

This work led onto the third phase of the study. The team compiled a database which documented all the known cases of pathologies in theropod dinosaurs.  Statistical analysis provided the scientists with potential insights into theropod lifestyle and behaviour. For instance, the high number of fractures observed in the Allosauridae. In addition, tyrannosaurids had bite marks which resulted in infections such as trichomonosis. The incidence of bite marks in tyrannosaurs suggests that tyrannosaurids indulged in very aggressive intraspecific social behaviour.

To read an earlier article from Everything Dinosaur documenting trichomonosis in an iconic T. rex specimen: Some Tyrannosaurs Suffered from Parasitic Infections.

Corresponding author of the newly published paper, Mattia Antonio Baiano (Ernesto Bachmann Municipal Museum) commented:

“This work not only expands our knowledge about dinosaur health, but also highlights the presence of diseases that persist today, suggesting possible connections between the study of extinct organisms and the research of contemporary diseases.”

Mattia Baiano conducts fieldwork.

Corresponding author Mattia Baiano conducts fieldwork. Picture credit: courtesy of the researchers.

Picture credit: Courtesy of the Researchers

A Fresh Perspective on the Lives of Predatory Dinosaurs

The research team concluded that statistical examination of the distribution of injuries associated with different theropod families could provide a fresh perspective regarding theropod behaviour. Different lifestyles and behaviours may underlie the frequency of different injuries among theropod taxa.

Co-author Diego Pol, CONICET researcher at the “Egidio Feruglio” Paleontological Museum added:

“It is a very interesting work since it brings together specialties from different researchers and tries to discover a little of the marks left on the skeleton by the behaviours of dinosaurs.”

Diego Pol one of the co-authors of the diseases in predatory dinosaurs paper.

Diego Pol one of the co-authors of the diseases in predatory dinosaurs paper.

Picture credit: Courtesy of the Researchers

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from CONICET in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “New information on paleopathologies in non-avian theropod dinosaurs: a case study on South American abelisaurids” by Mattia A. Baiano, Ignacio A. Cerda, Filippo Bertozzo and Diego Pol published in BMC Ecology and Evolution.

The Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Toys and Models.

4 04, 2024

The New Haolonggood Alamosaurus Dinosaur Model on Display

By |2024-04-04T17:00:19+01:00April 4th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Our thanks to model collector and dinosaur fan Carl who sent into Everything Dinosaur some photographs of his Haolonggood Alamosaurus dinosaur model on display.  The Haolonggood Alamosaurus is a recently introduced sauropod replica.  It is extremely large with a purported scale of 1:35. The figure measures over fifty-four centimetres in length.  In addition, it stands over thirty-six centimetres tall.  It makes a spectacular addition to a dinosaur model collection.

Haolonggood dinosaur models - the Haolonggood Alamosaurus model.

Haolonggood Alamosaurus dinosaur model on display next to the 30 cm tall CollectA cycad replica. Picture credit: Carl.

Picture credit: Carl

The Haolonggood Dinosaur Model (Type A)

The photograph shows the Haolonggood Alamosaurus model (type A).  It is one of three colour versions of this enormous dinosaur figure that have been introduced.  For a limited period, this model is supplied with a display base and accessories.  The cycad tree model adjacent to the Alamosaurus model provides an idea of the figure’s size.  The CollectA cycad tree stands approximately thirty centimetres tall.  However, it is dwarfed by the huge sauropod.

To view the range of Haolonggood dinosaur models in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Haolonggood Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

Sauropod dinosaur models on display.

A selection of sauropod dinosaur models on display. The limited-edition Haolonggood Alamosaurus type C (plain) is on the far left. The Papo Brachiosaurus (right) is partly obscured by the CollectA cycad tree model. Picture credit: Carl.

Picture credit: Carl

Sauropod Dinosaurs on Display

Carl also sent into Everything Dinosaur a photograph showing several sauropod figures on display.  The Papo Brachiosaurus (far right) is one of Papo’s largest figures. However, it looks quite small compared to the sauropod figures to its left.  The limited-edition Haolonggood Alamosaurus model is seen far left.  As before, the thirty-centimetre tall CollectA cycad tree helps to provide scale.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur thanked Carl for sending in the photographs.  He added that it was great to see the Haolonggood models on display and praised the collector for carefully considering which prehistoric plants to place next to the dinosaur models.

The spokesperson explained:

“We always enjoy receiving photographs of model collections.  Our customers find lots of innovative ways to display their prehistoric animal figures.  The sauropods from Haolonggood are particularly challenging as they are huge!”

The award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Models, Toys and Gifts.

3 04, 2024

Anthropocene Epoch Rejected as a Unit of Geological Time

By |2024-04-03T08:55:26+01:00April 3rd, 2024|Educational Activities, Geology, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) has voted to reject the Anthropocene Epoch as a unit of geological time.  Plans to introduce a new geological epoch based on the influence of humans on our planet have been shelved at a meeting of the IUGS.

Last month, a vote was held about the proposal to add the Anthropocene to the chronostratigraphic chart outlining the age of the Earth. This vote, undertaken by members of the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) led to a rejection of the proposal. This committee’s decision has now been endorsed by the IUGS.

The influence of mankind on our planet - the Anthropocene Epoch.

The idea of naming a new geological epoch to mark the influence of mankind on the planet has been rejected. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Anthropocene Working Group (AWG)

In 2001 the atmospheric chemist, Paul Crutzen, proposed that the activity of mankind was impacting natural environmental conditions to the extent that we had effectively left the natural stable
conditions of the Holocene Epoch and moved into a new interval that he named the Anthropocene.  A committee was established in 2009 to examine this idea.  It was named the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG).  Their brief was to examine the evidence for human induced climate change as reflected in the geological record, and to determine whether a new geological epoch was justified.

The Anthropocene Epoch Rejected – The Full Statement

A statement was released by the IUGS:

“It is with the delegated authority of the IUGS President and Secretary General and on behalf of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) that the vote by the ICS Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) to reject the proposal for an Anthropocene Epoch as a formal unit of the Geologic Time Scale is approved.”

Although the Anthropocene Epoch will not be appearing in textbooks anytime soon, these findings could be reviewed in a decade or so.  However, the IUGS did recognise the significance of this debate and highlighted the importance of recognising the impact of Homo sapiens on planet Earth.

The lengthy statement included the following:

“Despite its rejection as a formal unit of the Geologic Time Scale, Anthropocene will nevertheless continue to be used not only by Earth and environmental scientists, but also by social scientists, politicians and economists, as well as by the public at large. It will remain an invaluable descriptor of human impact on the Earth system.”

The Everything Dinosaur website: Everything Dinosaur.

2 04, 2024

Fifteen New Dinosaur Models Announced by Haolonggood

By |2024-04-02T20:12:33+01:00April 2nd, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Haolonggood have given Everything Dinosaur permission to publish details about new prehistoric animal model introductions.  We can reveal details of the next fifteen new dinosaur models to be made.  All of these dinosaurs are herbivores.  There are no theropods.  There are no carnivorous dinosaurs planned, at least for the next few months.

Haolonggood new dinosaur models for 2024.

New Haolonggood dinosaur models for 2024. Fifteen new dinosaur models have been announced. Annotation by Everything Dinosaur.

Fifteen New Dinosaur Models

The fifteen new dinosaur models from Haolonggood represent three sauropods and five horned dinosaurs.  In addition, there are five members of the Thyreophora (armoured dinosaurs).  The other two dinosaurs are members of the Saurolophinae subfamily of hadrosaurs (Maiasaura and Edmontosaurus).  The majority of the models represent dinosaurs that lived during the Cretaceous and roamed North America.

The full list:

  • Mamenchisaurus – known from the Late Jurassic of Asia (China).
  • Amargasaurus – a South American member of the Dicraeosauridae from the Early Cretaceous of Argentina.
  • Camarasaurus – associated with the famous Morrison Formation of the western United States.
  • Huayangosaurus – a primitive stegosaur from the Middle Jurassic of southwestern China.
  • Saichania – named after the “Saichan-tue” mountains of the Gobi Desert. Fossils of Saichania come from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia.
  • Gastonia – from the Yellow Cat Member of the Lower Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah (Early Cretaceous).
  • Euoplocephalus – named in 1910 (Lambe) and known from Montana and Alberta (Late Cretaceous).
  • Maiasaura – “Good Mother Lizard” from the Late Cretaceous of western Canada and the USA.
  • Edmontosaurus – a large genus of hadrosaur from North America (Late Cretaceous).
  • Diabloceratops – known from Utah, Diabloceratops was the first centrosaurine dinosaur to be described from fossils found south of Montana.
  • Utahceratops – from the Late Cretaceous of Utah with the trivial name honouring palaeontologist Mike Getty.
  • Styracosaurus – known from the USA and Alberta Canada, the famous centrosaurine called “Spiked Lizard”.
  • Einiosaurus – from the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (USA) another Late Cretaceous North American ceratopsid.
  • Xenoceratops – “Alien Horned Face” from the Upper Cretaceous beds of the Foremost Formation in Alberta (Canada).

To view the range of Haolonggood dinosaur models available from Everything Dinosaur: Haolonggood Dinosaur Models.

Everything Dinosaur Comments

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur praised Haolonggood for focusing on the production of herbivorous dinosaur models.

The spokesperson added:

“These are fifteen splendid dinosaur models.  They should all be in stock by the end of this year.  We look forward to further dinosaur model announcements from Haolonggood.”

The award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

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