All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
//January
31 01, 2024

New Haolonggood Dinosaur Models

By | January 31st, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Team members at Everything Dinosaur took a photograph of the fourteen new Haolonggood dinosaur models that recently arrived at the company’s warehouse. The new figures represent five theropods, one armoured dinosaur (Dacentrurus) and a titanosaur. The titanosaur is Ampelosaurus, which is also the largest figure in this recently arrived stock.

Haolonggood dinosaur models.
Fourteen new Haolonggood dinosaur models arrived at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse recently. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

To view the range of Haolonggood prehistoric animal models in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Haolonggood Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

Haolonggood Dinosaur Models

The fourteen figures represent seven dinosaur genera. The photograph showing the boxes together provides collectors with an impression of the size of the models relative to each other. The titanosaur figure (Ampelosaurus atacis) is the largest. The tyrannosaur figure Daspletosaurus (D. torosus) is the second largest.

Here is the full list of the Haolonggood figures in the photograph:

  • Dacentrurus – Xuning.
  • Dacentrurus – Lingzhen.
  • Carnotaurus – Li Zhong.
  • Carnotaurus – Zhou Tong.
  • Daspletosaurus torosus – Wu Song.
  • Daspletosaurus torosus – Lu Zhi Sheng.
  • Ampelosaurus – Sun Er Niang.
  • Ampelosaurus – Zhang Qing.
  • Dilophosaurus – Wang Ying/Hu San Niang.
  • Dilophosaurus – Sun Xin/Gu Da Sao.
  • Megaraptor – Shi Qian.
  • Megaraptor – Duan Jing Zhu.
  • Baryonyx – Shan Ting.
  • Baryonyx – Wei Ding Guo.

Haolonggood have established themselves rapidly in the dinosaur model collecting market. They have already built up an extensive product range. Everything Dinosaur is looking forward to highlighting new Haolonggood figures in the near future.

Visit the award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: The Everything Dinosaur Website.

30 01, 2024

New PNSO Saurophaganax Model Reviewed

By | January 30th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Our thanks to dinosaur fan William who sent into Everything Dinosaur his review of the recently introduced PNSO Saurophaganax dinosaur model. The reviewer explained that “Donald” the Saurophaganax was one of three new theropod figures introduced by PNSO towards the end of 2023. The other two figures were Dapeng and Dayong which represented the genus Yangchuanosaurus.

PNSO Donald the Saurophaganax
The new for late 2023 PNSO Donald the Saurophaganax figure.

The PNSO Saurophaganax Figure

William praised this new allosaur figure. The model measures around thirty centimetres in length. It is five centimetres longer than the PNSO Paul the Allosaurus figure. It seems that the design team at PNSO have thought carefully about the size of their Saurophaganax maximus figure. This model, like the PNSO Allosaurus has an articulated lower jaw.

PNSO Donald the Saurophaganax
The latest theropod to be announced by PNSO is Donald the Saurophaganax. It is a beautiful model of a Late Jurassic theropod dinosaur from North America.

“I Could Not Wait to Get this Figure into My Hands”

William explained that the Saurophaganax was a titan. He stated that “Donald’s” sculpt was supremely accurate from the head to the tip of the tail. He highlighted the presence of lips on this theropod figure.

He exclaimed:

“To own this Lord of the Lizard Eaters, you have the greatest Allosauridae model ever to hit the market.”

The dinosaur fan and model collector added:

“I could not wait to get this figure into my hands.”

Our thanks to William for sending in his PNSO Saurophaganax review to Everything Dinosaur.

View the range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Figures.

29 01, 2024

A Spectacular Nile Crocodile Skeleton on Display

By | January 29th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Team members at Everything Dinosaur photographed a spectacular Nile crocodile skeleton. The skeleton is on display at the London Natural History Museum. Recently, Everything Dinosaur wrote a short blog post about the reptile exhibit at the Museum.

Nile crocodile skeleton on display.
The skeleton of a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) on display at the London Natural History Museum. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To read Everything Dinosaur’s earlier crocodilian post: A Fascinating Nile Crocodile Exhibit.

The Nile Crocodile Skeleton

As male Nile crocodiles tend to be much bigger than the females, we suspect the skeleton represents a male. The Nile crocodile skeleton could have come from a crocodile farm. Perhaps the skeleton came from a zoo. It is part of an exhibit that looks at extant reptiles. The exhibit also includes a large, stuffed Nile crocodile specimen.

Nile crocodile specimen.
A stuffed Nile crocodile on display. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur stated:

“This large exhibit permits visitors to get a really good look at the skeleton of a large crocodile. The exhibit includes examples of crocodile stomach contents. The skeleton is impressive, although this reptile is dwarfed by the specimens in the Dinosaurs Gallery.”

The Everything Dinosaur website: Everything Dinosaur.

28 01, 2024

Tyrannosaur Figures Feature in New Customer Newsletter

By | January 28th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

The seven, new for 2024 Beast of the Mesozoic tyrannosaurs are featured in the latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter. The latest Beasts of the Mesozoic tyrannosaur shipment arrived late last week. Team members at Everything Dinosaur have been busy contacting all those customers who wanted to be informed.

A newsletter was also emailed to the company’s subscriber list.

Beasts of the Mesozoic tyrannosaurs - Gorgosaurus.
The Beasts of the Mesozoic Gorgosaurus figure features in the latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

New Beasts of the Mesozoic Tyrannosaurs

The new articulated figures feature different members of the Tyrannosauroidea superfamily. The model representing the geologically oldest theropod is the Eotyrannus figure (Eotyrannus lengi). Eotyrannus fossils are associated with Lower Cretaceous deposits. All six of the other new tyrannosaur figures represent dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous.

Beasts of the Mesozoic tyrannosaurs - Eotyrannus and Moros.
The two new Beasts of the Mesozoic tyrannosauroid figures Eotyrannus and Moros intrepidus. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of articulated Beasts of the Mesozoic models in stock: Beasts of the Mesozoic Models.

Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurs

The majority of the new tyrannosaur figures represent predators from either the Maastrichtian or Campanian faunal stages of the Late Cretaceous. Perhaps, one of the geologically youngest tyrannosaurs in this new wave of models would be Tarbosaurus (T. bataar). This Asian tyrannosaur is thought to have lived around seventy million years ago.

Beasts of the Mesozoic tyrannosaurs - Daspletosaurus and Tarbosaurus
The Late Cretaceous Daspletosaurus and the geologically younger Tarbosaurus (Beasts of the Mesozoic tyrannosaurs). Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Alectrosaurus and Albertosaurus

The latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter highlighted two other new theropod figures. Alectrosaurus (A. olseni) fossils come from the Iren Dabasu Formation of Inner Mongolia. The date of this formation remains controversial. Some palaeontologists have suggested that this fast-running tyrannosaur may have roamed China approximately ninety million years ago.

In contrast, Albertosaurus (A. sarcophagus) fossils roamed Canada many millions of years later. The fossils of Albertosaurus sarcophagus seem to be confined to the Canadian province of Alberta. A second potential and coeval Albertosaurus may have been present further south (Mexico).

Beasts of the Mesozoic tyrannosaurs - Alectrosaurus and Albertosaurus.
The Beasts of the Mesozoic Alectrosaurus (left) and the Albertosaurus (right). Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Contact Everything Dinosaur to request subscription to the company’s free newsletter: Email Everything Dinosaur.

Visit the award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Everything Dinosaur.

28 01, 2024

Excellent Columbian Mammoth Artwork

By | January 28th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur would like to thank talented young artist James who sent into Everything Dinosaur a stunning illustration of a Columbian mammoth that he had painted.

Columbian mammoth illustrated
Our thanks to talented artist James who produced this excellent illustration of a Columbian mammoth.

Picture credit: James

The prehistoric elephant is shown in lateral view as it moves through a woodland in North America during the Pleistocene Epoch. James has chosen to depict a mature animal given the impressive size of the tusks on this prehistoric elephant.

Columbian Mammoth Artwork

The Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) was among the last mammoth species to evolve. It was also one of the largest with some fossil specimens indicating mature bulls some 4.2 metres high at the shoulders. Body weights of the biggest individuals have been estimated at more than twelve tonnes. The last of these amazing creatures are thought to have become extinct around 12,000 years ago.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur thanked James for sending in the image of his Columbian mammoth artwork and exclaimed:

“We do get sent drawings and paintings of Woolly Mammoths, but we don’t receive many illustrations of Columbian mammoths. Our thanks to James for sending in an image of his superb artwork”.

27 01, 2024

Are These Really Polacanthus Fossils?

By | January 27th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

In the Liverpool World Museum there are several exhibits that feature dinosaur fossils. One display case includes two, worn fossils which are described as Polacanthus foxii fossil material. The fossil material has a rounded appearance. According to the display label these fossils are from the Wealden Beds exposed at Chilton Chine on the Isle of Wight. They are described as casts (copies) of a Polacanthus braincase. The actual fossils probably came out of the cliffs and were exposed on the beach for some time prior to their discovery. These fossils were rolled around the beach and attrition caused their rounded and weathered appearance.

However, these fossils, or their copies may not represent Polacanthus foxii.

Polacanthus fossils.
Casts of Polacanthus fossils. Fragmentary and eroded replica armoured dinosaur fossils on display at Liverpool Museum. These fossils have been assigned to Polacanthus foxii. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Labelling Polacanthus Fossils

The Wealden Group covers several million years of deposition. To date, armoured dinosaurs named and scientifically described from the Wealden Group include Hylaeosaurus, the recently named Vectipelta and Polacanthus.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s blog post on Vectipelta: Vectipelta barretti Honours Natural History Museum Professor.

The fossils, although labelled as Polacanthus, may not represent that taxon. Fossils from the Isle of Wight attributed to Polacanthus may actually represent multiple, as yet unnamed taxa.

Polacanthus foxii dinosaur model.
The CollectA Deluxe Polacanthus foxii dinosaur model. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture (above) shows the new for 2024 CollectA Deluxe Polacanthus model. This figure is based on the Polacanthus foxii holotype material. It is a modern interpretation of the known fossil material.

To view the CollectA Deluxe range of figures: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Animal Figures.

Vectipelta for example, is only distantly related to both Hylaeosaurus and Polacanthus foxii.

It is unlikely that all the fossil material ascribed to the Polacanthus taxon displayed in museums actually represents P. foxii, or indeed any other possible species as yet unassigned to the Polacanthus genus.

The Everything Dinosaur website: The Everything Dinosaur website.

26 01, 2024

New PNSO Yangchuanosaurus “Dapeng” Reviewed

By | January 26th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Our thanks to a dinosaur model fan who sent in a review of the recently introduced PNSO Yangchuanosaurus “Dapeng” into Everything Dinosaur. William emailed to praise this new PNSO theropod figure and explained that this was the second Yangchuanosaurus figure from PNSO. This replica represents the enormous species Y. magnus.

PNSO Yangchuanosaurus "Dapeng" packaging.
The packaging of the recently introduced PNSO Yangchuanosaurus model “Dapeng”. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

PNSO Yangchuanosaurus “Dapeng”

The reviewer described this new PNSO figure as “truly a Jurassic terror of China’s ancient past.”

The genus was first erected in 1978 (Dong Zhiming et al). A large theropod skeleton had been discovered during the construction of a dam in Sichuan Province. This dinosaur was estimated to have measured around eight metres long. It was named Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis. In 1983, a second, considerably larger specimen was uncovered (specimen number CV 00216). It was initially thought to represent a new species and the taxon Yangchuanosaurus magus was erected. Further analysis revealed that the anatomical differences observed in the two skeletons were the result of ontogenetic variation. This larger skeleton is now thought to represent and older, more mature Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis.

The PNSO Yangchuanosaurus in the landscape.
The Yangchuanosaurus dinosaur model (Dapeng) from PNSO.

Two PNSO Yangchuanosaurus Figures

The reviewer summed up the two PNSO Yangchuanosaurus figures stated that “Dapeng” represented the larger species Y. magnus or to put it another way the “old man” of “Dayong”.

William expressed his delight at being able to purchase this figure and commented:

“It is privilege to add this great beast to my collection.”

William concluded his Yangchuanosaurus “Dapeng” review by thanking Everything Dinosaur team members for their assistance. He highlighted the company’s excellent customer service and provided an example. Last year, William ordered a pair of PNSO Megalosaurus models, he was emailed by Everything Dinosaur just to make sure he did want the two figures. Team members were concerned in case William had ordered an extra Megalosaurus model by mistake. Once the order had been checked and verified it was despatched without delay.

Our thanks to William for his PNSO Yangchuanosaurus model review.

The PNSO range of prehistoric animal figures: PNSO Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Figures.

25 01, 2024

Fascinating Nile Crocodile Specimen on Display

By | January 25th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Team members at Everything Dinosaur photographed a stunning Nile crocodile specimen on display at the London Natural History Museum. The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is the largest freshwater predator in Africa. Males can grow up to six metres in length and weigh more than a tonne. As such, the Nile crocodile can be considered as the second-biggest extant reptile. Only the Estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is larger.

Nile crocodile on Display
The head of a stuffed crocodile specimen (Nile crocodile) on display at the London Natural History Museum. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The stuffed crocodile specimen measures more than three metres in length. It is part of an exhibit that highlights the diversity of vertebrates found on Earth today. It is exhibited alongside a Crocodylus niloticus skeleton.

The Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)

Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that this African crocodile is more closely related to American crocodiles such as the Orinoco crocodile and the Cuban crocodile than it is to other African crocodile species. Several subspecies of Crocodylus niloticus have been proposed.

crocodile model.
A model of a crocodile with an articulated lower jaw. The model is based on the African crocodile species Crocodylus niloticus.

The picture (above) features the Mojo Fun crocodile figure. This detailed model has an articulated jaw.

To view the range of Mojo Fun figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Mojo Fun Models.

A Man-eater

These crocodiles are estimated to kill many hundreds of people each year. The total number of attacks on humans is unknown as many attacks are unreported. Nile crocodiles tend to be much more aggressive than many other crocodilians. However, these crocodiles live in close proximity to human populations throughout most of their range. As contact is more frequent, this may explain why the number of Nile crocodile attacks remains disproportionately high. Most attacks on humans are made by crocodiles that exceed three metres in length. However, smaller crocodiles, animals less than two metres in length are capable of overpowering children.

A number of programmes are in place to help reduce the threat of crocodile attacks, by providing alternative access to water through the construction of wells and safe water gathering places. It is hoped that educating local fishermen about crocodile behaviour can reduce the risk of attack.

Commenting on the museum crocodile exhibit a spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur stated:

“The exhibit looks at the evolutionary history of vertebrates. The reptile section is particularly interesting with many stuffed specimens on display.”

Visit the award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Everything Dinosaur.

24 01, 2024

New Study into Very Old Vertebrate

By | January 24th, 2024|Adobe CS5, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The evolution of a jaw and the transition from passive feeding to predatory behaviour is regarded as one of the most significant events in the evolution of vertebrates. It has been suggested that early vertebrates were passive, suspension feeders. They removed particles of food in the water column by some form of filtration. Over time, a more predatory, active lifestyle evolved. Living jawless vertebrates today such as the Hagfish (Myxinidae family) are scavengers as well as predators. Studying these animals can help to inform palaeontologists about the potential feeding strategies of extinct jawless fish. However, the feeding strategy of these animals and jawed stem-gnathostomes (the phylogenetic intermediates of living jawless and jawed vertebrates) remains unclear.

Heterostrachan and placement within the vertebrates.
The diversity and relationships of jawless and jawed vertebrates, crosses indicate extinct clades. The red star indicates the location of the Heterostraci. Picture credit: Grohganz et al with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur.

New and Innovative Research into Extinct Jawless Fishes

A new scientific paper, published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology casts doubt on the idea that some jawless vertebrates were filter feeders. Scientists from the University of Bristol used innovative research techniques to examine the dentition of extinct jawless heterostracans. The Heterostraci are an extinct subclass of the Agnatha (jawless fishes).

The research discovered that the forward-facing denticles on the oral plates of heterostracans were not adaptations for filter feeding.

Madleen Grohganz, the lead author of the paper from Bristol University’s Palaeobiology Research Group commented:

“The origin of vertebrates, our very own evolutionary lineage, is widely regarded as one of the most important events in evolutionary history. Early vertebrate evolution is a much-debated topic among biologists and palaeontologists and there are still many unresolved questions.”

Oral plates of Protopteraspis.
Articulated, V-shaped oral plate apparatus of Protopteraspis vogti; B, aboral; C, oral views. Rostral is to the top of the image in B and C. Note scale bar = 2 mm. Picture credit: Grohganz et al.

The Jawless Heterostracans

Heterostracans are among the oldest of all the vertebrates. Their mode of feeding remains controversial. To determine whether they were filter feeders or predators sophisticated modern computational palaeobiological techniques were employed in this study.

Heterostracans possessed a feeding apparatus of rod-like oral plates with rows of forward-facing denticles outside of the mouth. These traits had been thought to represent combs for filter feeding.

The team employed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a technique from engineering that simulates fluid flows and their interaction with solids to test this hypothesis. Water flow modelled around these structures would indicate whether these oral plates were effective at filtering out particles of food.

All the tested models, independent of denticle orientation, showed similar flow, velocity and vorticity patterns. Based on these analyses the team rejects the hypothesis that denticle orientation is a specific adaption to suspension feeding. The denticles only occur on the lateral sides of the very tip of the oral plates. They may have played a role in preventing oversized food particles, sediment or parasites from lodging between the plates.

Madleen Grohganz stated:

“Our study is one of the first, that actively tests feeding mode hypotheses of early jawless vertebrates instead of making poorly constrained inferences. This is an important step towards better understanding the feeding mode of early jawless vertebrates, testing evolutionary scenarios and ultimately shedding more light on early vertebrate evolution.”

More Research into Stem-gnathostomes Required

The feeding strategies of stem-gnathostomes remains largely unknown. The researchers conclude that other feeding theories such as whether heterostracans were capable of biting still require testing.

The exact nature of heterostracan feeding remains an open question. Other feeding hypotheses, which propose a mechanical function related to active biting or scavenging, still need to be tested. The creation of three-dimensional skull models based on non-destructive CT scans could yield more evidence to help inform palaeontologists. Madleen Grohganz and her colleagues agree that more research is required on these basal vertebrates.

Dr Grohganz explained:

“Previous feeding mode hypotheses of early jawless vertebrates have mainly been based on poorly constrained inferences. But using computational palaeobiological methods, we were able to actually test and reject one of these feeding mode hypotheses.”

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Bristol in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Testing hypotheses of pteraspid heterostracan feeding using computational fluid dynamics” by Madleen Grohganz et al published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Visit the Everything Dinosaur website: Everything Dinosaur.

23 01, 2024

New PNSO Yangchuanosaurus “Dayong” Reviewed

By | January 23rd, 2024|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The recently introduced PNSO Yangchuanosaurus “Dayong” dinosaur model has been reviewed by a dinosaur model collector. William emailed Everything Dinosaur and explained he was a big fan of the PNSO theropod dinosaur figures. He kindly sent a short review of the PNSO Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis model referred to as “Dayong”.

Yangchuanosaurus in the landscape.
Yangchuanosaurus in the landscape.

The PNSO Yangchuanosaurus “Dayong”

William explained that “Dayong” was the first of a pair of Yangchuanosaurus figures introduced by PNSO. This replica represents the smaller species (Y. shangyouensis), or a subadult of Y. magus (depending on which reference you read).

The reviewer stated that although the model was slightly smaller than other PNSO theropods, it was:

“Top of the line and a worthy figure to add to your collection.”

William went onto add that the PNSO Yangchuanosaurus “Dayong” is a marvellous sculpt.

“It is robust, and I love his long, boxy face and the lips. He has a wonderful set of teeth in his articulated mouth.”

The Yangchuanosaurus dinosaur model has an articulated jaw.
The PNSO Yangchuanosaurus dinosaur model has an articulated jaw. The reviewer praised this feature of the figure.

William thanked Everything Dinosaur for their ability to provide access to new prehistoric animal models. In addition, the reviewer congratulated the company on their recent, well-deserved Feefo Platinum Trusted Service Award.

View the range of PNSO models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Figures.

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