The new for 2022 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Patagotitan model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur. This large replica of a super-sized titanosaur has arrived at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse and team members are busy contacting all those customers who requested an alert when the dinosaur model was available.
Wild Safari Prehistoric World Patagotitan Model
The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Patagotitan model measures around 40 cm in length and that beautiful and carefully sculpted head is raised off the ground by about 10.5 cm. Although Safari Ltd do not provide a declared scale for this figure, team members estimate that the Patagotitan model is in approximately 1:100 scale.
Patagotitan Fact Sheet
Everything Dinosaur team members have researched and written a Patagotitan mayorum fact sheet. The fact sheet also contains a scale drawing providing an indication of the huge size of this massive dinosaur. Patagotitan mayorum can claim to be the biggest terrestrial animal known to science, based on substantially complete fossil remains. The first fossil evidence for Patagotitan emerged in 2008 and pictures of its fossils have been circulated widely. Patagotitan was formally named and described in 2017.
Models Available from Everything Dinosaur
The Patagotitan model joins over ninety prehistoric animal figures in the Wild Safari Prehistoric World range available from Everything Dinosaur. The range already contains a number of sauropod figures including Apatosaurus, Amargasaurus, Brachiosaurus, Malawisaurus and Camarasaurus.
Team members at Everything Dinosaur have been busy assessing an Atlasaurus dinosaur model at the request of a customer. The UK-based mail order company had been contacted by a potential customer in America who was looking to purchase an Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus figure.
The customer was seeking assurance that the head of the model was painted accurately. We were happy to oblige and sent some images of the dinosaur model we had selected so that the customer could see the quality of the Eofauna Scientific research models that are currently stocked.
The Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus Model
Introduced in 2019, the Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus dinosaur model continues to be popular amongst dinosaur fans and model collectors. It was the first sauropod figure made by this company and it has received praise and positive feedback. However, our American contact wanted to be sure that they would be getting a model with an excellent paint scheme. Team members were happy to email over images of the Atlasaurus model that they had chosen.
Checking Prehistoric Animal Models for Customers
An Atlasaurus model was selected and team members carefully checked the painting of the head and body of the figure. The replica was checked and then once the images had been received by the American client, it was simply a case of waiting to hear back from the USA.
The customer approved our selection, placed an order on the Everything Dinosaur website and the Atlasaurus was on its way to the USA the next day.
Assessing an Atlasaurus
Whether it’s assessing an Atlasaurus or checking over a Camarasaurus we are quite happy to assist customers with their model selections.
Everything Dinosaur stocks a wide range of Eofauna Scientific Research prehistoric animal models. To view these models on Everything Dinosaur’s user-friendly website: Eofauna Scientific Research Models.
Newly published research suggests that ancient “sharks” appeared much earlier than previously thought. A fossil from China represents a new species of jawed fish (Qianodus duplicis) and its discovery suggests that fishes with true jaws first evolved in the Early Silurian.
An Early Silurian Origin of Shark-like Jaws
The scientific paper, published in the journal “Nature” identifies Q. duplicis as the earliest record of a toothed gnathostome known to science. Its discovery extends the record of toothed gnathostomes by some 14 million years from the Late Silurian into the Early Silurian (around 439 million years ago).
The fossils (a handful of tiny teeth), found in China represent the earliest direct evidence for jawed vertebrates known to science.
Previously, the earliest jawed fish to be positively identified, included species from the Late Silurian, fossils thought to date from around 424 million years ago. These include the placoderms (Class Placodermi) partially armoured gnathostomes, and sarcopterygians, bony “lobe-finned” fishes found initially in China and Vietnam.
Confirming Evidence from Fossil Fish Scales
Co-author of the paper, Dr Ivan Sansom (University of Birmingham), commented:
“Until this point, we’ve picked up hints from fossil scales that the evolution of jawed fish occurred much earlier in the fossil record, but have not uncovered anything definite in the form of fossil teeth or fin spines.”
Construction workers building a new road in Guizhou Province uncovered fossil material and field teams from the Chinese Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology (IVPP) and the Qujing Normal University (QJNU), were despatched to take samples and to analyse the Silurian-aged deposits.
The scientists found numerous scales, but also recovered several miniscule fossil teeth between 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm in length.
Dr Sansom explained:
“Scales are relatively easy to find because they are so plentiful, but teeth are much scarcer. The scale and speed at which IVPP and QJNU colleagues were able to sift through the material enabled us to identify these scarce remains more effectively than in previous projects.”
Around twenty of the tiny fossil teeth turned out to be from the same species (Qianodus duplicis). From the arrangement of the teeth and their morphology, the team established that they would have come from a fish with an arched jaw margin, with offset tooth rows, similar to those found in extant sharks. The team used a range of techniques, including Computed Tomography (CT scans), to establish a date for the samples.
What’s in a Name?
The new species Qianodus duplicis comes from “Qian” the ancient name for Guizhou Province, “odus” from the Greek for tooth, and duplicis, or double, referring to the paired rows of teeth.
A Cartilaginous Fish – Fanjingshania renovata
In a separate paper, also published today in Nature, the team also identified fossil elements that relate to “fin spines”, bony projections in front of the fins which can be seen today on Port Jackson sharks. These spiny structures form the basis for the identification of a new species Fanjingshania renovata named after Mount Fanjingshan which is close to the locality from where the fossil material was collected. The species name “renovata”, acknowledges renewal, the remodelling of the base of the spines and scales.
Lead author of both papers Dr Plamen Andreev (Qujing Normal University), commented:
“The early so-called “spiny sharks” had these features on all of their fins, but the examples that we have found belong to a much earlier period. These are the first creatures that we would recognise today as fish-like, evolving from creatures often referred to as “clams with tails”, from earlier in the Ordovician period.”
Ancient “Sharks” Appeared Much Earlier
Cartilaginous fish (chondrichthyans), including sharks, separated off at some point from osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods), from which our own species eventually evolved. The point at which this occurred, however, is obscured within ghost lineages in the Ordovician, where only hints in the fossil record have been found. Precisely how and when this separation happened, therefore, remains ambiguous.
Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Birmingham in the compilation of this article.
The scientific paper: “The oldest gnathostome teeth” by Plamen S. Andreev, Ivan J. Sansom, Qiang Li, Wenjin Zhao, Jianhua Wang, Chun-Chieh Wang, Lijian Peng, Liantao Jia, Tuo Qiao and Min Zhu published in Nature.
The scientific paper announcing Fanjingshania renovata: “Spiny chondrichthyan from the lower Silurian of South China” by Plamen S. Andreev, Ivan J. Sansom, Qiang Li, Wenjin Zhao, Jianhua Wang, Chun-Chieh Wang, Lijian Peng, Liantao Jia, Tuo Qiao and Min Zhu published in Nature.
Palaeontology, dinosaurs and prehistoric animals are frequently subjects for video games. Players have the opportunity to construct their own “Jurassic Park”, go fossil collecting and combat dinosaurs. A new study indicates that these games may contain negative and harmful themes that can confuse and lead to misconceptions about palaeontology.
An international team of researchers, led by scientists from the University of Birmingham, played and studied a variety of video games containing elements of palaeontology. An eclectic range of video games were sampled including Super Mario World, Animal Crossing and the “Jurassic Park/World” games. The team attempted to map what was “palaeo-fact” and what was “palaeo-fiction”.
Sorting “Palaeo-fact” from “Palaeo-fiction”
Dr Thomas Clements (University of Birmingham) and a co-author of the study explained:
“Loads of people are inspired by and get their understanding of dinosaurs from movie blockbusters like Jurassic Park, but no one talks about how massive the gaming industry is in shaping not only the public’s understanding of ancient life and also of paleontological science.”
Pleasantly Surprised by the Accuracy
The researchers were pleasantly surprised by the accuracy of some of the games. However, they quickly identified numerous negative tones that were repeatedly reflected in the gaming environment.
Dr Clements commented:
“When we played through many of these games, we were pleasantly surprised about the accuracy of games like Animal Crossing that provide accurate and educational information in a fun and engaging way. However, we also found that many games contain misleading, negative, and sometimes quite damaging themes – many already widespread issues in the gaming industry. It is common for palaeo-games to contain ethically dubious science, the illegal collection of fossils, ‘monsterification’ of animals, poor representation of minority groups, and the hypersexualisation of women.”
Writing in the journal EGUsphere Geoscience Communications, the scientists analysed the representation of palaeontology in hundreds of video games, classifying them into several categories. They then defined a number of factors which may help or hinder a video game’s effectiveness in promoting palaeontology to a wider audience. Their study has implications for ways that science communicators can address these issues when talking to the public about palaeontology and has a wider role in helping to support gender equality and ethnic diversity.
Portraying Palaeontology to the Public
Co-author Jake Atterby (University of Birmingham), stated:
“This paper is about how the science of palaeontology is portrayed to the public, at a time when many people get a lot of their knowledge from media and entertainment. Audiences can subconsciously learn from the media they consume, including depictions of our science that are deliberately exaggerated for entertainment. This can give players a false impression of ancient life and the work that we do. It is important for palaeontologists to understand the public’s perception of our science to help when we communicate our research.“
Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Birmingham in the compilation of this article.
The scientific paper: “The perception of palaeontology in commercial off-the-shelf video games and an assessment of their potential as educational tools” by Thomas Clements, Jake Atterby, Terri Cleary, Richard P. Dearden and Valentina Rossi published in EGUsphere Geoscience Communications.
Everything Dinosaur will be stocking the new for 2022 PNSO Deinocheirus model. A stunning replica of a bizarre theropod dinosaur. Jacques the PNSO Deinocheirus is already on its way to Everything Dinosaur and it is expected to arrive at the company’s UK warehouse in the next few weeks (November 2022).
Jacques the PNSO Deinocheirus Model
The figure is based on the very latest scientific reconstruction of this giant ornithomimosaur which was named and described in 1970. The arms of this biped, at around 2.4 metres in length, are amongst the largest arms of any known member of the Theropoda. The PNSO replica has been given plenty of plumage on its forelimbs and a long tail with a tuft of feathers on the end.
PNSO Deinocheirus Model Measurements
The model measures a fraction over 29.2 cm in length and that prominent hump and beautifully detailed head stand over 12 cm off the ground. Jacques the Deinocheirus is part of the very popular PNSO mid-size model range.
Expected to Arrive at the Same Time as the Sinopliosaurus
The new PNSO Deinocheirus figure is the last, scheduled PNSO prehistoric animal model to be introduced this year. It will be on the same shipment as the PNSO Sinopliosaurus figure that we at Everything Dinosaur announced in August: PNSO Adding a Sinopliosaurus Dinosaur Model.
Supplied with Poster, Booklet and QR Code
The PNSO Jacques the Deinocheirus model has an articulated jaw. It is supplied with a sci-art poster, a 64-page, fully illustrated booklet and the box has a QR code on it permitting access to a short product video.
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur welcomed the new PNSO figure and confirmed that it was scheduled to be in stock in November.
To view the large range of PNSO prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.
Everything Dinosaur’s customer newsletter for September features the latest Rebor replicas to arrive, a chance to purchase rare Rebor museum quality Titanoboas and two CollectA deluxe dinosaurs including the recently introduced CollectA deluxe Triceratops horridus dinosaur model.
The new Rebor non-scale, diorama display bases “Summer Kisses and “Winter Tears” provide the headlines for our latest customer communication.
“Summer Kisses” and “Winter Tears” are the first, bespoke diorama bases to be introduced into Rebor’s extensive model range. They contain amazing detail and the tree stump featured on the bases provides extra support and stability for Rebor replicas. To read about these exciting new additions: Looking at “Winter Tears” and “Summer Kisses”.
Please note, the outer packaging for these figures has been damaged in transit to our warehouse. Whilst we have opened, inspected and checked all the display bases, unfortunately the outer packaging for the Rebor Non-scale Diorama bases is below the standard one would normally expect.
Rebor T. rex Models “Kiss” and “Tusk”
Also prominent in Everything Dinosaur’s customer newsletter are the two new Rebor Tyrannosaurus rex models “Kiss” and “Tusk”. The “Kiss” T. rex figure has been given lips, whilst “Tusk” reflects a more conventional view with T. rex being lipless and having an overbite.
Both newly introduced theropod replicas have proved to be extremely popular with model collectors.
Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquettes
Customers who have subscribed to Everything Dinosaur’s free newsletter have also been given an update on the availability of the two special-edition Rebor Titanoboa maquettes “Brian Diccus” and “Monty Resurgent”. These 1:11 scale replicas were originally introduced in 2021 but are now becoming increasingly rare and difficult to obtain. Fortunately, for model collectors Everything Dinosaur does still have these figures in stock.
The latest edition of the Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter also features the recently arrived CollectA Deluxe Triceratops horridus model and highlights the best-selling CollectA Deluxe Edmontosaurus. These ornithischian models demonstrate the quality of workmanship associated with the CollectA ranges.
Everything Dinosaur has commissioned a Sinopliosaurus drawing as they prepare for the arrival of the PNSO Sinopliosaurus dinosaur model later in the autumn. The Sinopliosaurus illustration will be used in a free fact sheet that team members intend to send out with product sales.
Resolving Taxonomy and Size Issues
It is our intention to produce a scale drawing of this putative spinosaurid. This in itself is quite a challenge as the fossils ascribed to this theropod have had a long and complicated taxonomic history. In addition, the size of this Chinese member of the Spinosauridae remains unknown, such is the fragmentary nature of the fossil material. If Sinopliosaurus (S. fusuiensis) is a synonym for Siamosaurus, the first reported and formally scientifically described spinosaurid from Asia* then size estimates would range between five and in excess of nine metres in length.
Siamosaurus suteethorni was named and described in 1986 (Éric Buffetaut and Rucha Ingavat), the absence of more substantial and complete fossil material, especially skull material has made estimating the potential size of these Early Cretaceous theropod dinosaurs extremely difficult.
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:
“We congratulate PNSO for adding a replica of such an enigmatic Chinese fossil specimen to their Age of Dinosaurs mid-size model range. Whilst we welcome the introduction of some of the less well-known theropods, the addition of the Sinopliosaurus has given us a headache when it comes to researching and producing the free fact sheet on this dinosaur. However, we are confident that we will be able to rise to the challenge and anyway, we could always consult our customers and get their input on this matter.”
The PNSO Chongzuo the Sinopliosaurus is expected in stock at Everything Dinosaur later in the autumn, perhaps early to mid-November (2022).
We received an email earlier this week with an enquiry about the term allometric growth which had been found in a scientific paper the emailer had been reading. Our emailer wrote to ask what did this term mean?
Allometric growth is a term used to describe the growth of an organism whereby different parts develop at different rates. The appearance of the organism will change as it grows and matures.
Triceratops Allometric Growth
In the picture (above) a model of a juvenile Triceratops is compared with a model of a fully-grown, mature Triceratops. In the juvenile the head is proportionately larger and the skull frill and horns are very different in their morphology compared to the adult. This is an example of allometric growth. Allometry is the study of body size relative to body shape, it is often partnered in scientific papers with ontogeny which is the term used to describe how organisms develop and grow.
The Chinese model-making company PNSO have recently introduced some replicas that demonstrate how dinosaurs changed as they grew and matured. For example, the company recently introduced (2022), a 1:35 scale replica of an adult chasmosaurine ceratopsian (Torosaurus latus) and a juvenile. The models, entitled Aubrey and Dabei were supplied with posters and a full-colour, illustrated booklet.
The University of Manchester has launched a campaign to bring back “April” the Tenontosaurus. Manchester Museum is asking for public support to install a stunning Tenontosaurus fossilised skeleton, one of the most complete specimens of this Early Cretaceous ornithopod ever found.
The Museum is hoping to raise £10,000 GBP ($11,280.00 USD), to enable the Tenontosaurus to be restored and installed in the Dinosaurs and Fossils gallery as an exhibit with the 110-million-year-old fossil bones in their correct anatomical positions.
The Tenontosaurus specimen (MANCH LL.12275) was purchased by the University of Manchester in 1999. It has been the subject of a recent scientific paper which confirmed the presence of gastroliths (stomach stones), the first evidence of gastroliths to be identified in a derived member of the Ornithopoda.
The stunning fossil specimen comes from Montana, and it is affectionately named “April” after the wife of Barry James who originally prepared the fossil for display. When first put on show to the public it was portrayed in an upright position, like a super-sized kangaroo with its tail resting on the ground. However, research from Earth Sciences students from the University of Manchester has shed light on how the skeleton would have walked and posed in life.
Thousands of Hours of Restoration Work is Required
The Curator of the Earth Science Collections at the Manchester Museum David Gelsthorpe outlined the aims of the fund-raising effort and explained some of the problems that this restoration project will pose.
“April is a Tenontosaurus purchased by Manchester Museum in 1999 and was previously displayed standing upright. Over the past few years, we have been working with a team of Earth Sciences students from the University of Manchester to carefully study April’s bones and find out more about her. Using their palaeontology skills and computer modelling, their research has helped us to better understand how she would have moved on all fours. As well as changing the way the skeleton stands, over 10,000 hours of careful conservation work is required to restore its bones.”
The Museum is requesting donations to help bring “April” back to her best and to permit her to be once again an integral part of the Museum’s Dinosaurs and Fossils Gallery.
If the fund raising succeeds than the Tenontosaurus specimen will form the focal point of a brand-new exhibition devoted entirely to the Dinosauria, planned for April 2023. Visitors will have the opportunity to view prehistoric giants, such as “Stan” the Tyrannosaurus rex cast and to learn about British dinosaur fossil discoveries. The demise of the Dinosauria and many other types of animals and plants as a result of a mass extinction event, some sixty-six million years ago, will be linked to today’s problems of climate change and the current rate of extinction.
Plans for the new dinosaur exhibit are part of a larger scheme of improvements planned for Manchester Museum which has been entitled “Hello Future”.
To play your part and contribute to “April’s” restoration, please visit: Support Manchester Museum. Every donation will go towards helping to put “April” back on display.
Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from Manchester Museum in the compilation of this article.
The Rebor Summer Kisses Winter Tears diorama bases are in stock at Everything Dinosaur. Two fantastic prehistoric animal display bases. These are the first, bespoke diorama bases to have been made by Rebor and as their names suggest each base depicts the same landscape but in a different season. The Winter Tears base depicts an arid environment typical of the dry season, whilst Summer Kisses is verdant and lush, illustrating a landscape after recent rains.
Suitable for Lots of Different Dinosaurs
The two beautifully painted diorama display bases can be used with a huge range of dinosaur and prehistoric animal figures. For example, team members posed a Rebor Vanilla Ice tyrannosaur figure on a base. This theropod model, one that was introduced by Rebor in 2018, looks very much at home on both Winter Tears and Summer Kisses.
Lots of Details on the Bases
Each base has lots of detail, including stones and plenty of small sticks. A large tree stump towards the rear of each base provides additional support for any prehistoric figure that is to be displayed. Both Summer Kisses and Winter Tears are made from durable polystone and there is plenty of space amongst the debris to position a prehistoric animal figure securely.
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:
“We congratulate the manufacturer for producing such detailed display bases. The Rebor Summer Kisses Winter Tears diorama bases represent the same piece of landscape, but in different seasons – a dry season and a wet season.”
Note: The outer packaging for these figures has been damaged in transit to our warehouse. Whilst we have opened, inspected and checked all the display bases, unfortunately the outer packaging for the Rebor Non-scale Diorama bases is below the standard one would normally expect.