All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
30 11, 2019

A Guide to the New CollectA Models (Part 5)

By | November 30th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

A Guide to the New CollectA Models (Part 5)

Yesterday, Everything Dinosaur in collaboration with CollectA, announced the final five prehistoric animal models to be introduced by CollectA next year (2020).  These figures include three invertebrates (two cephalopods and an arthropod), plus a bizarre pterosaur, one of the strangest of all the flying reptiles and a new colour variant of the popular rearing Diplodocus replica.

As with previous CollectA releases, we have produced a short video in which we discuss these five models in a little more detail.

A Quick Video Guide to the New CollectA Prehistoric Animal Models (Fifth and Final Part)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

CollectA Deluxe (Supreme) Caviramus Model in 1:2 Scale

The Pterosauria were the first vertebrates to master powered flight.  These flying reptiles which have no close living relatives, were very strange animals, perhaps the most bizarre of all were the “campylognathoidids” – pronounced cam-pea-low-gnath-oi-dids, which are known from Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic strata.  Several genera have been assigned including Caviramus, but scientists are not sure where these types of pterosaurs fit into the Pterosauria family tree and indeed, how the genera within the Campylognathoididae family (also referred to as the Raeticodactylidae), are related to each other remains uncertain.  All the fossil material known comes from northern Europe with one species described from Greenland.  These were the first pterosaurs to demonstrate head crests as depicted on the CollectA Deluxe Supreme figure.

CollectA Have Four Pterosaurs in the CollectA Deluxe (Supreme) Model Range

CollectA Deluxe (Supreme) pterosaurs.

The pterosaurs in the CollectA Deluxe (Supreme) model range.  Each model has an articulated jaw.  Everything Dinosaur congratulates CollectA for introducing such a dynamic range depicting the huge variety within the Pterosauria.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Caviramus  (also referred to as Raeticodactylus), comes from Switzerland.  It had large eyes, a curved lower jaw, that is reminiscent of these types of pterosaurs (the name campylognathoidid – is from the Latin for curved jaw), proportionately long legs and slender wings.  Caviramus, with a wingspan of around 1.35 metres, is one of the largest representatives of this bizarre group.  The CollectA Deluxe Caviramus model measures around 32 cm long, it is referred to as a 1:2 scale model.  The narrow jaw with its deep keel at the front, was lined by an assortment of teeth of several different shapes and sizes.  What Caviramus ate remains a mystery but studies of the skull and jaws suggest that for such a small animal, it had a very powerful bite.  Fittingly, this new for 2020 CollectA model will have an articulated lower jaw.

Amazing Arthropods and Cool Cephalopods

In line with CollectA’s policy of introducing more creatures from the Palaeozoic, a superb replica of a trilobite has been added to the range.  Redlichia rex was only formally named and described earlier this year and it is the largest species of trilobite known from Australia to date.  To read more about the Cambrian predator Redlichia rex:  “King” of the Trilobites Discovered in Australia.

Two cool representatives of the Cephalopoda are also due out in the middle of 2020.  Both are nektonic and predatory, but they herald from very different parts of the extensive cephalopod timeline.  Nautilus pompilius can be traced back to the Pleistocene Epoch, whereas, the much larger and far more ancient Orthoceras is associated with the Ordovician-aged Baltic Sea limestones of Sweden.  All three of these beautifully sculpted replicas will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur by mid 2020.

One Trilobite (Arthropoda) and Two Cephalopods (N. pompilius and Orthoceras)

CollectA Arthropods and Cephalopods new for 2020.

New CollectA Arthropods and Cephalopods.  The three new models announced on Friday are shown at the top with (below), the previous new for 2020 invertebrate figures announced by Everything Dinosaur recently. 

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

CollectA Diplodocus – Grey

The final figure to be announced was the new rearing Diplodocus grey colour variant, which is due to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur early next year.  At this time, Everything Dinosaur team members are not sure whether this figure will replace the original rearing Diplodocus model that came out in 2013.  Naturally, if we receive information about model retirements from the CollectA ranges we will post this information up onto this blog and our other social media platforms.

A Pair of Diplodocus Models from CollectA – Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size

CollectA Diplodocus Figures

Comparing the new for 2020 grey Diplodocus with the original 2013 figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

For the time being, Everything Dinosaur still has stocks of the original CollectA rearing Diplodocus model: CollectA Prehistoric Life Models.

In summary, CollectA will introduce a total of eighteen new prehistoric animal models in 2020. Some of these figures will be available in early 2020, the rest should be in stock by the middle of the year.

To read our earlier article announcing the five new models discussed in our video review: New CollectA Prehistoric Animal Models (Part 5- Final)

29 11, 2019

New CollectA Models (Final Part)

By | November 29th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

New CollectA Models (Part 5 – Final)

Today, Everything Dinosaur in collaboration with our friends at CollectA publish part 5, the final part in our series of articles announcing new CollectA prehistoric animal models for 2020.  Fittingly, in this fifth and final blog article we have five new figures to announce:

The five new CollectA prehistoric animal models are:

  • CollectA Deluxe (Supreme) 1:2 scale model of the bizarre pterosaur Caviramus.
  • CollectA Redlichia rex trilobite model (Other Prehistoric Animals Range).
  • CollectA Orthoceras – straight-shelled nautiloid (Other Prehistoric Animals Range).
  • CollectA Nautilus pompilius – once thought as an example of a “living fossil” (Other Prehistoric Animals Range).
  • CollectA The Age of Dinosaurs – Popular Size grey Diplodocus.

The CollectA Deluxe (Supreme) Caviramus Pterosaur Model

CollectA Caviramus model with an articulated jaw.

The bizarre Late Triassic pterosaur Caviramus (CollectA Caviramus model).

Picture Credit: CollectA

CollectA Deluxe (Supreme) Caviramus Model

CollectA will add a fourth pterosaur to their CollectA Deluxe (Supreme) range in 2020.  The Caviramus model will have an articulated lower jaw and it demonstrates all those weird and wonderful features that have left palaeontologists scratching their heads since this flying reptile was formerly named and described in 2006

Everything Dinosaur congratulates CollectA on introducing such a fascinating and untypical member of the pterosaur family into their model range.

CollectA Redlichia rex Trilobite

CollectA Redlichia rex – Trilobite Terror

CollectA Redlichia rex trilobite.

CollectA Redlichia rex trilobite model.  Like other recently announced new for 2020 CollectA models this replica was requested by a German museum and dinosaur theme park.

Picture Credit: CollectA

Wandering the seabed of what is now Australia some 513 million years ago, was a very large trilobite.  Redlichia rex was twice as big as other trilobites known from the Emu Bay Shale on Kangaroo Island (South Australia), the largest specimens are around thirty centimetres long.  It has been suggested that this trilobite specialised in hunting smaller trilobites it may have been a cannibal.  Named and described this year (2019), the species name “rex”, which means “king”, refers to its large size and predatory nature, reminiscent of Tyrannosaurus rex, which lived some 447 million years later.

The CollectA Orthoceras Model (New for 2020)

Collecta Orthoceras model.

CollectA Orthoceras.

Picture Credit: CollectA

CollectA Orthoceras

A model of a straight-shelled nautiloid (Orthoceras), will be added to the CollectA range.  Long before vertebrates became large enough to become apex predators, there was an evolutionary “arms race” between the Arthropoda and Mollusca.  Powerful armoured sea scorpions (eurypterids), such as Megalograptus did battle with giant orthoconic nautiloids.  Orthoceras was one such predator, a cephalopod and an active hunter of Ordovician seas some 465 million years ago.  They are only very distantly related to the living spiral shelled nautilus.

On the subject of nautiloids…

The CollectA Nautilus pompilius Model

CollectA Nautilus pompilius model.

CollectA Nautilus pompilius sometimes referred to as the “Emperor nautilus” because of its large size.

Picture Credit: CollectA

CollectA Nautilus pompilius

As with the trilobite, the Orthoceras and the ammonite/belemnite/horseshoe crab, CollectA figures discussed last week, this nautilus replica has been requested by a German museum and dinosaur-themed park.  Once described as a “living fossil” scientists now believe that extant forms are not that closely related to prehistoric lineages.  As for the large, chambered-shelled N. pompilius, its fossil record dates back to the Pleistocene Epoch.

The New for 2020 CollectA Grey Diplodocus

CollectA rearing Diplodocus - grey

New for 2020 CollectA rearing Diplodocus – grey.

Picture Credit: CollectA

CollectA Age of Dinosaurs – Popular Size Grey Diplodocus

The last of the five models for today, the final model to be announced for 2020, is a dinosaur.  This is very appropriate for a company that has forged such a strong reputation for its dinosaur figures and replicas.  CollectA will be introducing a new colour variant of its popular rearing Diplodocus dinosaur model.  Many collectors have requested a new colour scheme for this figure, the muted tones provide a fascinating contrast to the original CollectA rearing Diplodocus that was introduced in 2013.

Tale of the Tape

Those important model measurements:

  • CollectA Deluxe (Supreme) Caviramus length 32 cm, height 21 cm – available mid 2020.
  • CollectA Redlichia rex Trilobite length 9.5 cm, width 5.7 cm – available mid 2020.
  • CollectA Orthoceras shell length 15.2 cm, spread of arms 8.1 cm in diameter – available mid 2020.
  • CollectA Nautilus pompilius length 10 cm, width 4.5 cm, height 6.5 cm – available mid 2020.
  • CollectA rearing Diplodocus model length 19.4 cm, height just under 23 cm – available early 2020.

To view the current range of CollectA Age of Dinosaurs – Popular size figures: CollectA Prehistoric Life.

To view the first of the 2020 CollectA prehistoric animals to be announced: New CollectA Prehistoric Animals (Part 1).

To read about the second set of new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animals: New CollectA Prehistoric Animals (Part 2).

To read the third part in our series introducing new CollectA figures: New CollectA Models (Part 3).

To read the fourth part in this series: New CollectA Models (Part 4).

To view the CollectA scale model series: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life.

28 11, 2019

Extra-terrestrial Objects Targeted in Bid to Prevent Asteroid Impacts

By | November 28th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page|0 Comments

Researcher Calls for Assistance to Help Earth Avoid Asteroid Impacts

Most scientists believe that Earth was subjected to a huge extra-terrestrial impact event around sixty-six million years ago.  This event referred to as the Chicxulub impactor, as the centre of the impact crater is close to the town of Chicxulub on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, probably played a significant role in the mass extinction event that marked the end of the Mesozoic.  In a bid to avoid our own species going the way of the Dinosauria, a Queen’s University Belfast researcher is calling on amateur astronomers to help with a European-wide mission helping to limit the possibility of future asteroid impacts.

Professor Alan Fitzsimmons (Astrophysics Research Centre at Queen’s), is a senior mission advisor for the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Hera spacecraft.  Hera is part of humanity’s first deep space test of planetary defence against asteroids.  What was once the stuff of science-fiction is now fast becoming a reality with scientists wanting to learn more about the enormous quantity of vagrant material associated with our solar system and the potential threat we face from extra-terrestrial impacts.

Hera will also mark our first attempt to rendezvous a spacecraft with a binary asteroid system.  This is a little understood class of rocks and ice which makes up around fifteen per cent of all known near-Earth asteroids.  The spacecraft was presented to ESA’s Space19+ meeting in Seville (Spain), this week as part of the Agency’s Space Safety programme, where Europe’s space ministers made the decision to fly the mission.  Hera has in effect, the green for go light.

A Simulation Showing Hera Analysing an Asteroid

The spacecraft Hera at work.

A simulation showing the desk-sized Hera studying a binary asteroid.

Picture Credit: European Space Agency

A Collaboration with NASA

The mission is the European contribution to an international double-spacecraft collaboration.  NASA will first hit the moon of the asteroid with its own spacecraft and Hera will then follow-up with a detailed post-impact survey.  As well as exploring its final destination, the Didymos binary asteroid system, the Hera spacecraft could potentially fly past one or more bodies on the way.  But the mission team require additional observations to help select their targets.

Professor Fitzsimmons commented:

“Asteroid research is one area of astronomy where amateur observers continue to make an essential contribution.  The flyby candidates we have identified so far are little more than tiny dots of light in the sky, so faint they are invisible to the naked eye.  We need as much help as possible to refine their orbits and measure their properties, which could give clues to their characteristics in advance of Hera’s launch in October 2024.”

Help Wanted

The flyby opportunity arises because Hera will head out to match Didymos’s 770-day orbit around the Sun, which circles from less than 10 million kilometres from Earth to out beyond Mars, at more than double Earth’s Sunward distance.  In the process Hera will pass multiple asteroids and squeeze past the inner edge of the main Asteroid Belt located between Mars and Jupiter.

ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC), has come up with a flyby shortlist.

ESA’s Hera project scientist Michael Küppers stated:

“For a 2-5 km asteroid employing Hera’s main Asteroid Framing Camera, we would aim for a flyby distance of 500 kilometres, but close approaches without real flybys are still useful, as they allow asteroid observations from angles unachievable from Earth.”

The precise targeting will come right down to the day of launch, how much fuel remains after fine-tuning Hera’s trajectory to Didymos and how accurately it will be possible to refine the potential flyby targets’ orbits.  The amount of fine-tuning will also be dependent on the Ariane 6 launcher which will place Hera onto its interplanetary trajectory.

From ESOC’s full set of flyby possibilities Professor Fitzsimmons and the Hera investigation team have come up with an initial list of seven candidate asteroids they would like amateur astronomers to try to observe.

Professor Fitzsimmons explained:

“Only three of these bodies have known diameters and albedos, or surface brightness.  None of them have known rotation periods, this is something experienced amateurs could try and measure for us, especially for the brighter objects.”

ESA’s first experience with asteroid flybys came during Europe’s Rosetta mission, when the comet chaser passed two Main Belt asteroids in 2008 and 2010, giving the spacecraft an early opportunity to try out its suite of scientific instruments ahead of reaching comet 67P Churyumov–Gerasimenko in 2014.  However, Rosetta was a bus-sized spacecraft on a ten-year cruise phase with multiple planetary flybys, while Hera will be only the size of a small desk, headed on a more straightforward route through deep space for a little over twenty-four months.

So, any additional asteroid encounter cannot be taken for granted but would be a scientifically valuable extra.  Hence the rallying call to the amateur astronomer community to help select flyby targets.

After all, we don’t want to go the way of the dinosaurs do we.

Asteroid Impact – Assistance Required to Help Avoid Extra-terrestrial Impacts

Asteroid strikes the Earth.

An extra-terrestrial object approaches Earth.  A Joint NASA and ESA space project sets out to help avoid future Earth impact events.

Picture Credit: Deposit Photos/Paul Paladin

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from Queen’s University Belfast in the compilation of this article.

28 11, 2019

Wonky Horned Dinosaur Skeleton

By | November 28th, 2019|General Teaching|Comments Off on Wonky Horned Dinosaur Skeleton

Horned Dinosaur Skull – Not Symmetrical

A team of scientists writing in the prestigious journal “Cretaceous Research”, have discovered the beautifully preserved skull of a horned dinosaur.  The skull comes from a Styracosaurus, a dinosaur famous for its bony neck frill with spikes.  However, the left side of this bony frill looks very different from the right side of the frill.  The skull is asymmetrical.

Palaeontologist Scott Persons with the Skull of the Styracosaurus

An asymmetrical Styracosaurus skull.

Palaeontologist Scott Persons with his dog and the Styracosaurus skull.

Picture Credit: Scott Persons/University of Alberta

When scientists want to display a dinosaur in a museum, they often produce mirror images of bones to replace missing parts of the skeleton.  For example, if the right thigh bone is found but not the left, then a mirror image of the right thigh bone can be produced and used in the mounted display.  The discovery of this asymmetrical dinosaur skull demonstrates that the heads of dinosaurs could look very different.  The right side of the head looks very different from the left.  This has implications for how dinosaurs can be displayed in museums – producing mirror images of bones from the skull might not be as good an idea as previously thought.

In addition,  such variability in the skull and the way that it looks casts doubt over how some dinosaur species get named.  Sometimes a new species is erected based on subtle variations in the shape and structure of the skull.  If the dinosaurs had such extensive variations in the shape of the skulls, as this Styracosaurus fossil suggests, then some dinosaur species might be invalid.

27 11, 2019

Targaryendraco – Unravelling the Ornithocheiridae

By | November 27th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Targaryendraco – When the Pterosauria and “Game of Thrones” Meet

The Ornithocheiridae is one of the most extensively researched of all the pterosaur families.  However, this family of flying reptiles has a reputation amongst researchers for being one of the most difficult when it comes to mapping out their taxonomy.  The fragmentary fossils (usually jaw tips), first studied in the middle of the 19th century, has led to the erection of all kinds of genera and species.  Many palaeontologists are trying to make sense of this complicated and confused taxonomy, trying to unpick and unravel all those dubious pterosaurs assigned from the Cambridge Greensand of southern England and from the Lower Cretaceous deposits of central Germany as well as elsewhere in the world.

A team of researchers writing in the academic journal “Historical Biology”, have reassessed a specimen housed at the State Museum of Natural History – Stuttgart (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde).  This specimen, the most complete pterosaur fossil known from Lower Cretaceous deposits in Germany, consists of material from the lower jaws, (including the jaw tips), a partial rib as well as elements from the forelimbs, hand and fingers.  Originally assigned to the Ornithocheirus genus and named Ornithocheirus wiedenrothi, the authors build on previous studies that questioned whether this specimen represented a species of Ornithocheirus, redescribe it and assign this pterosaur to its own genus – Targaryendraco.  The trivial name is still retained, honouring amateur palaeontologist Kurt Wiedenroth who discovered the fossil material back in 1984.

A Life Reconstruction of Targaryendraco wiedenrothi

A life reconstruction of the pterosaur Targaryendraco.

Targaryendraco life reconstruction.  The single specimen known probably represents a sub-adult, so the size of this flying reptile is uncertain, some estimates have suggested a wingspan of between 3-4 metres.  Ironically the fossil specimen demonstrates a narrow mandible, a characteristic of the Ornithocheiridae.

Picture Credit: Vitor Silva

The “Game of Thrones” Connection

The genus name is a combination of Targaryen and “draco” from the Latin for dragon.  Targaryen is one of the Houses in the fictional chronicles “A Song of Ice and Fire” by George R. R. Martin, upon which the television series “Game of Thrones” is based.  The dragons of the popular saga have dark coloured bones, the type specimen of Targaryendraco wiedenrothi is a dark grey colour, caused by mineralisation from the surrounding matrix.  The name also references the connection between pterosaurs and dragons, a link cited almost since the first fossils of these flying reptiles came to be known by western science.

The Holotype Lower Jaw with Line Drawings (Targaryendraco wiedenrothi)

Views of the holotype lower jaw of Targaryendraco wiedenrothi.

Holotype lower jaw of Targaryendraco wiedenrothi with line drawings.  The holotype fossil (SMNS 56628) dorsal view (A) with line drawing (B) and a lateral view (C) with accompanying line drawing (D).

Picture Credit: Alexander Kellner and Taissa Rodrigues

A New Clade of Pterosaurs – the Targaryendraconia

The researchers, Rodrigo V. Pêgas, Borja Holgado and Maria Eduarda C. Leal undertook a phylogenetic analysis based on the three-dimensional German fossils and subsequently erected a new clade of pterosaurs – the Targaryendraconia which consists of six genera (see below).  This new clade is both geographically and temporally widespread and demonstrates that the diversity of Lower Cretaceous toothy pterosaurs was higher than previously thought.

The six genera assigned to the clade Targaryendraconia:

  • Targaryendraco – described in 2019 from fossil material found in near Hannover in Germany.
  • Aussiedraco – described in 2011 from fossils found in Queensland, Australia.
  • Barbosania – described in 2011 (Santana Formation of north-eastern Brazil).
  • Camposipterus – redescribed in 2013 and known from the Cambridge Greensand formation.
  • Aetodactylus – described in 2010 and known from Texas (USA).
  • Cimoliopterus – redescribed in 2013 and known from fragmentary fossils from Texas and Kent in south-eastern England.

Studying the ornithocheirids might be like trying to untie the Gordian Knot of ancient mythology, but at least with this new assessment, a small part of this complicated fossil collection has been unravelled.

26 11, 2019

Styracosaurus Skull Provides a Head’s Up When it Comes to Naming New Dinosaurs

By | November 26th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Asymmetrical Styracosaurus Skull Could Change the Way in Which Dinosaur Species are Erected

A team of researchers based at the University of Alberta have published a scientific paper that might just turn some assumptions when it comes to naming a new dinosaur species on their head.  Cranial fossil material can provide palaeontologists with important indicators that can help them establish that a newly found fossil represents a new species.  Often it is the skull and jaws that provide the important morphological evidence to help palaeontologist establish taxonomic relationships between genera.  However, the mainly University of Alberta-based team challenge some of these assumptions, all thanks to “Hannah” a Styracosaurus skull named after one of the researcher’s dogs.

Palaeontologist Scott Persons with “Hannah” the Styracosaurus and his Dog Hannah

Scott Persons with dog and "Hannah" the Styracosaurus.

Scott Persons with “Hannah” the Styracosaurus and his dog.

Picture Credit: Scott Persons/University of Alberta

In 2015, a field team working in the Dinosaur Provincial Park of southern Alberta uncovered the skull of a five-metre-long horned dinosaur (Styracosaurus).  Nothing too unusual so far, after all this spiky-frilled horned dinosaur was scientifically described based on an almost complete skull (the type specimen), found in the Dinosaur Provincial Park, but Hannah’s skull was different – very different!  It is not symmetrical, the left half of the skull looks different from the right half – cue concerns being raised over how dinosaur genera and species are erected.

Co-author of the scientific paper published this week in the journal “Cretaceous Research” Scott Persons commented:

“When parts of one side of the skull were missing, palaeontologists have assumed that the missing side was symmetrical to the one that was preserved.  Turns out, it isn’t necessarily.  Today, deer often have left and right antlers that are different in terms of their branching patterns.  This fossil shows dramatically that dinosaurs could be the same way.”

An Asymmetrical Dinosaur Skull

The well-preserved Styracosaurus skull (UALVP55900), has cranial imperfections that could change how palaeontologists identify new species of dinosaurs.  Differences in the shape of horned dinosaur’s skulls and their bony frills have been noted before, after all, there is variability recorded in fossils assigned to a species due to differences in age, in growth stages and from the effects of pathology.  In this case, the Styracosaurus called “Hannah” demonstrates previously unrecorded differences between the left side and the right side of the skull.  As with the type specimen collected by the famous scientist C H. Sternberg, the right lateral parietal bar (the right side of the skull frill) has seven bony projections (epiossifications), but the left parietal bar is not symmetrical it has eight epiossifications!

A Computer Rendered Image Showing the Skull of the Styracosaurus

Asymmetrical Styracosaurus skull.

Asymmetrical Styracosaurus albertensis skull.

Picture Credit: Scott Persons/University of Alberta

The skull (UALVP55900) is shown in right lateral view (top) and left lateral view (middle).  The dorsal view (bottom) shows the clear differences in the shape of the left and right sides of the skull (asymmetry).

The differences are so marked, that if the scientists had found only isolated halves, they could have concluded that each half represented a different horned dinosaur species.

Lead author of the study, Robert Holmes (University of Alberta), explained that “Hannah” shows that the pattern of a dinosaur’s horns could vary so much from one side of the skull to the other.  This raises doubts over the validity of some species such as Rubeosaurus ovatus.  Rubeosaurus was originally described as a species of Styracosaurus (1930), based on a single parietal bone (part of the skull frill), collected in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana.  This fossil and a second more complete skull fossil found in 1986, were subsequently reviewed and the genus Rubeosaurus (R. ovatus) erected in 2010.

Thanks to Hannah, it looks like the research undertaken in 1930 was right, the authors of the newly published paper suggest that Rubeosaurus ovatus is a junior synonym of Styracosaurus.

What are the Implications for the Naming of Dinosaur Species?

Styracosaurus with an asymmetrical skull.

A drawing of an asymmetrical skull (Styracosaurus albertensis).  In our illustration the epiossifications associated with the skull frill are asymmetrical.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Since working on the paper, Scott Persons has moved on, becoming a professor and museum curator at the College of Charleston.  He may have had to leave “Hannah” the Styracosaurus behind but we presume Hannah the dog is still with him.

Persons commented:

“Hannah the dinosaur is named after my dog.  She’s a good dog, and I knew she was home missing me while I was away on the expedition.”

Despite the nickname, palaeontologists are not able to determine whether specimen number UALVP55900 represents a male or a female Styracosaurus.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from the University of Alberta in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Morphological variation and asymmetrical development in the skull of Styracosaurus albertensis” by Robert B. Holmes, Walter Scott Persons, Baltej Singh Rupal, Ahmed Jawad Qureshi and Philip J. Currie published in Cretaceous Research.

25 11, 2019

Important News – Limited Edition Papo Spinosaurus

By | November 25th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|2 Comments

Important News – Limited Edition Papo Spinosaurus

The limited edition Papo Spinosaurus dinosaur model is one of the most eagerly anticipated dinosaur models for years.  Collectors and dinosaur model fans do not have much longer to wait as Everything Dinosaur expects to have this exciting, limited edition model in stock by around December 10th or thereabouts.

The Limited Edition Papo Spinosaurus Dinosaur Model

The limited edition Papo Spinosaurus dinosaur model.

The limited edition Papo Spinosaurus dinosaur model has an articulated jaw.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The box that this 42 cm long model comes in is huge!  This box is far too large to be sent by airmail, signed or tracked and signed conventional international mail services.  So, to help Everything Dinosaur’s customers overseas we are offering TWO purchase options:

  1. Buy the model in its special edition gift box (fine for UK-based customers, but for customers overseas this would mean expensive postage).
  2. Buy the model without the box, sending the model without the big, cumbersome box drastically reduces postage charges for our customers.

All is explained in this short, five minute video:

Papo Spinosaurus Purchase Options

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Two Purchase Options

At Everything Dinosaur, we appreciate this postage dilemma, so team members are prepared to unpack the model for those customers who what to purchase it without the box.  The model can then be sent out at a much reduced postage cost.  It can be despatched by airmail and other postal services, such as the tracked and signed option (which we would recommend for this limited edition figure).  The model, although large, (that beautiful sail on the back stands some nineteen centimetres off the ground at its highest point), can be sent out on its own without the packaging using conventional international mail with Everything Dinosaur.  If the model is taken out of its box and despatched, the overseas postage costs are very much reduced.

Summarising the Purchase Options Available at Everything Dinosaur

Papo Spinosaurus purchase options.

Papo Spinosaurus – two purchase options.  Option 1 purchase the model in the box, or option 2 purchase the model without the box.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

If the model is sent without the presentation box, it will be packed by Everything Dinosaur to ensure that the figure is protected and it will not have a product tag, this boxed model has no product tag associated with it.

With the mail services getting increasingly busy as we head towards the 25th December, customers can even message Everything Dinosaur when placing an order and let them know to delay sending out their parcel in order to avoid the risk of their purchase getting mislaid by the mail network in the Christmas rush.

Ensuring all the Cardboard and Plastic in the Presentation Box is Recycled

Everything Dinosaur is currently working towards 100% recycling of all wastepaper and cardboard at the company.  This is a key component of our environmental policy.  There is a lot of cardboard and plastic packaging associated with the Papo Spinosaurus presentation box.  Customers can be assured that we have put in place plans to ensure that all the cardboard and plastic from any boxes that have had the model removed will be recycled.  We have had to commission a special box to accommodate all those customers who want to purchase the model within its presentation box (we show this new packaging in the video), as part of our environmental policy we have sourced this box from a supplier that has used 70% recycled cardboard in its construction.  Only the facia elements are not made from recycled card, these in turn, have been produced from wood pulp from sustainable forests.

To see more Everything Dinosaur videos, model reviews along with helpful advice and tips we recommend that readers subscribe to our YouTube channel:

Subscribe to Everything Dinosaur on YouTube here: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

If you have any further questions about the Papo Spinosaurus model: Email Everything Dinosaur.

24 11, 2019

Rebor and Eofauna Models Feature in Everything Dinosaur Newsletter

By | November 24th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

New Rebor and Eofauna Models Feature in Newsletter

The latest newsletter to be despatched by Everything Dinosaur features new figures from Rebor and Eofauna Scientific Research.  Grabbing the headlines is the recently introduced 1:40 scale replica of Atlasaurus (A. imelakei) by Eofauna.  This is a fabulous model of Atlasaurus, a strange sauropod known from the Jurassic of north Africa.

Making the Headlines – The Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus Dinosaur Model

Eofauna Atlasaurus dinosaur model features in newsletter.

The new for November 2019 Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus headlines the Everything Dinosaur newsletter.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

As far as team members at Everything Dinosaur are aware, this is the first replica of an Atlasaurus to be made by a mainstream model manufacturer.  Atlasaurus is the fifth figure to be produced in the Eofauna Scientific Research range and the second dinosaur.

Rebor GrabNGo Komodo Dragon and the Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Replica

Also just arrived at the Everything Dinosaur warehouse are the Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon in 1/6th scale and the 1/35 scale Eofauna Deinotherium.  Both these models have earned praise for their realism and the quality of detail.  Staff have been kept busy contacting all those customers who requested one of these models to be reserved.

The Rebor GrabNGo Komodo Dragon and the Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium

Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon and Eofauna Deinotherium.

Rebor Komodo dragon model (left) and the Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium replica (right).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon is the first in a new line of figures from Rebor.  Customers now have the opportunity to check-out the detail and build quality associated with this exciting new range.

To view the Eofauna Atlasaurus, the Deinotherium and the other three models in this range: Eofauna Scientific Research Models and Replicas.

To see the Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon model and the rest of the Rebor range: Rebor Replicas, Models and Figures.

Rebor Oddities – Dinosaur Foetuses

A large waitlist for the two Rebor Oddities figures (T. rex foetus and the Velociraptor foetus) had been built up since our first stock of these figures sold out.  With the arrival of a second shipment team members have been busy sorting out orders for these two, highly collectable and very unusual dinosaur figures.  It seemed appropriate to feature the return of these two popular models in our latest newsletter.

The Two Rebor Oddities Foetus Wet Specimens

Rebor Oddities T. rex foetus and Velociraptor foetus.

The two Rebor Oddities dinosaur foetuses.  The Velociraptor foetus (left) and the slightly larger T. rex foetus specimen (right).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Fans of the “Jurassic Park/Jurassic World” movie franchise can have the opportunity to purchase their very own dinosaur foetus.  Each specimen jar has a light up base, just add water to create a stunning display piece.

Everything Dinosaur has published a short video guide to these two Rebor replicas on the company’s YouTube channel: How to Unpack and Set Up the Rebor Oddities Foetus Specimens.

Newsletter subscribers can find out about new additions to model ranges, discontinued lines, receive special offers and have the opportunity to join priority reserve lists for forthcoming releases.  To join Everything Dinosaur’s newsletter subscriber database, simply: Email Us or fill in the newsletter request form to be found at the bottom of our Everything Dinosaur website home page.

23 11, 2019

A Quick Guide to the New CollectA Models (Part 4)

By | November 23rd, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Geology, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

A Short Video Highlighting New for 2020 CollectA Models (Part 4)

Yesterday, Everything Dinosaur in collaboration with our chums at CollectA, revealed the latest collection of prehistoric animal models for 2020*.  Naturally, we put up a blog post providing a little more information about each replica, specifically the new hunting Mapusaurus dinosaur model, the Pleuroceras ammonite, the belemnite and the beautiful horseshoe crab model.  Team members are committed to helping to inform and educate our customers, so in this spirit, we have produced a short video providing a little more information about each of these exciting new figures.

A Quick Video Guide to the New CollectA Prehistoric Animal Models (Part 4)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

CollectA Age of Dinosaurs – Popular Size Hunting Mapusaurus

The first model to be featured in this short video (it lasts a little over five minutes in length), is the only dinosaur figure announced in this batch, a replica of a hunting Mapusaurus.  CollectA originally introduced a model of this giant, South American member of the Carcharodontosauridae (Giganotosaurini tribe), back in 2012.  This model was subsequently modified and a base added. Already represented in the CollectA Deluxe range (a 1:40 scale Mapusaurus was added in 2018), the new hunting Mapusaurus model, which measures a fraction under 23.5 cm long, will be available from Everything Dinosaur in the middle of 2020.

The Evolution of CollectA Mapusaurus Models

Evolution of Mapusaurus replicas within the CollectA model range.

The changing Mapusaurus models 2012 – 2020 (CollectA).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

CollectA Ammonite (Pleuroceras) and the CollectA Belemnite Model

Fossil collectors have two new models for 2020 to get particularly excited about.  CollectA will be adding an ammonite model and a belemnite to their Age of Dinosaurs range.  These two superb cephalopods help to demonstrate what the actual living animal looked like.

New for 2020 the CollectA Ammonite and Belemnite Models

CollectA ammonite and belemnite.

The CollectA ammonite and belemnite 2020 models next to examples of fossils.  Everything Dinosaur team members know that a number of geologists and palaeontologists will be keen to get their hands on these realistic CollectA replicas.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

CollectA Horseshoe Crab Model

The fourth replica that we discuss in our short video is the horseshoe crab replica.  Everything Dinosaur will be stocking this fifteen centimetre long model of an ancient arthropod, often described as a “living fossil”.   Horseshoe crabs are fascinating creatures, despite their name they are not closely related to crabs, as members of the Arthropoda phylum they are more closely related to spiders and the extinct sea scorpions (eurypterids).  All four living species are vulnerable to extinction due to loss of habitat, overfishing (they are caught and used as bait) and from the harvest of their blue-coloured blood which has medical applications.  It is great to see a horseshoe crab model added to the CollectA range.

New for 2020 The CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size Horseshoe Crab Model

CollectA Horseshoe Crab model.

CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size Horseshoe Crab.

Picture Credit: CollectA

2020* To read our blog post from yesterday about these four new CollectA Age of Dinosaurs – popular size models: New CollectA Models for 2020 (Part 4).

To view the range of not-to-scale CollectA prehistoric animal models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Prehistoric Life.

22 11, 2019

New CollectA Models (Part 4)

By | November 22nd, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|3 Comments

New CollectA Models (Part 4)

It’s that time of the week when we can reveal the next set of CollectA prehistoric animal figures that are to be introduced next year.  Today, we announce four new models in total, one dinosaur and three invertebrates.  One of the invertebrates could be described as a “living fossil”.

All these figures are in the “CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size” range and they are:

  • CollectA Hunting Mapusaurus Dinosaur Model
  • CollectA Pleuroceras (ammonite)
  • CollectA Belemnite
  • CollectA Horseshoe Crab

The CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size Hunting Mapusaurus Dinosaur Model

CollectA hunting Mapusaurus

CollectA Mapusaurus hunting dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: CollectA

CollectA Mapusaurus Hunting Model

CollectA will add a model of the giant South American theropod Mapusaurus in a hunting pose.  We suspect that this figure is being brought out to replace the original CollectA Mapusaurus model that was introduced in 2012.  There is a Mapusaurus in the CollectA Deluxe 1:40 model range, this was introduced in 2018.  Designer Anthony Beeson suggests that this Popular series figure can accompany the Deluxe version, perhaps as a representation of a juvenile or a sub-adult.

The CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size Pleuroceras Ammonite Model

CollectA Pleuroceras ammonite model.

CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size Pleuroceras ammonite model.

Picture Credit: CollectA

CollectA Pleuroceras Ammonite Model

The first of the three new prehistoric invertebrates is a wonderful model of the Early Jurassic ammonite Pleuroceras and what a beautiful figure it is.  CollectA have been asked to create several marine creatures by a German Museum and Dinosaur Park to help illustrate what the living creatures associated with iconic fossils actually looked like.  Pleuroceras is one of the most distinctive of all the ammonites known from the Pliensbachian stage of the Jurassic, its fossils are associated with famous fossil sites such as Lyme Regis in Dorset and Nuremberg (southern Germany).  This type of ammonite was an active swimmer (nektonic) and a hunter of other animals.  The strongly ribbed shell and the prominent, serrated keel running around the outside of the shell are distinctive features associated with this genus.  CollectA have depicted their ammonite in a dynamic pose as if it is about to grab at prey.  The hypernome (the fleshy tube underneath the head used to propel the cephalopod backwards by shooting jets of water forwards), can clearly be seen.

The CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size Belemnite Model

CollectA Belemnite model.

CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size belemnite model.

Picture Credit: CollectA

CollectA Belemnite Model

Joining the ammonite is another cephalopod, a fantastic figure of a belemnite.  The word “belemnite” comes from the Greek for “dart”, a reflection of the fact that these marine creatures closely related to squid, cuttlefish and ammonites for that matter, are mostly known from the robust guard (scientifically described as a rostrum), a solid piece of calcite that was located at the rear of the animal and formed part of its internal skeleton.

Designer Anthony Beeson explained that he wanted to depict these members of the Mollusca phylum as active animals he commented:

“I have tried to give the cephalopods a sense of movement which is often lacking in toy representations.”

We suspect that both the ammonite and belemnite models are going to prove very popular with UK regional museums, curators can add a representation of the living animal into display cases highlighting the fossils.

The CollectA Horseshoe Crab

CollectA Horseshoe Crab model.

CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size Horseshoe Crab.

Picture Credit: CollectA

CollectA Horseshoe Crab

The last new model for this week, is an arthropod, a model of an animal geologically much older than either the ammonite or belemnite.  The horseshoe crab (family Limulidae), was around before both ammonites and belemnites evolved, this marine invertebrate, often described as a “living fossil” has not changed much in over 450 million years.  That hard carapace and the eyelets including the primitive eyes (pits at the front of the model), have been beautifully sculpted.  Everything Dinosaur team members are keen to see what the underside of the model looks like with its gills and paired limbs.

Tale of the Tape

All four figures are in the CollectA The Age of Dinosaurs – Popular size model range and therefore they are not to scale.

  • CollectA Hunting Mapusaurus length 23.4 cm, height 8.6 cm – available mid 2020.
  • CollectA Pleuroceras length 11.9 cm, height just over 7 cm – available mid 2020.
  • CollectA Belemnite length 10 cm, height 14.3 cm – available mid 2020.
  • CollectA Horseshoe Crab 15 cm long, width 7.7 cm – available mid 2020.

To view the current range of CollectA Age of Dinosaurs – Popular size figures: CollectA Prehistoric Life.

To view the first of the 2020 CollectA prehistoric animals to be announced: New CollectA Prehistoric Animals (Part 1).

To read about the second set of new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animals: New CollectA Prehistoric Animals (Part 2).

To read the third part in our series introducing new CollectA figures: New CollectA models (Part 3).

Load More Posts