All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
4 06, 2024

Musankwa – A New Sauropodmorph from Zimbabwe

By |2024-06-16T11:44:18+01:00June 4th, 2024|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Fossils found on the shoreline of Lake Kariba in northwestern Zimbabwe represent a completely new species of dinosaur.  This new dinosaur, a sauropodomorph, has been named Musankwa sanyatiensis.  It is only the fourth dinosaur species named from Zimbabwe.  The study involved the Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe, Stony Brook University (New York) and the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa). The research was led by Professor Paul Barrett of the London Natural History Museum.

Musankwa sanyatiensis life reconstruction.

Artist reconstruction of Musankwa sanyatiensis, walking in Triassic shallow waters past a temnospondyl (metoposaur). Picture credit: Atashni Moopen.

A New Late Triassic Sauropodmorph Dinosaur

The discovery of Musankwa sanyatiensis is extremely significant.  It is the first dinosaur to be named from the Mid-Zambezi Basin in more than fifty years.  In addition, Musankwa will help to inform palaeontologists about the evolution of Late Triassic sauropodomorphs.

The four dinosaurs to be named and described from fossils found in Zimbabwe are:

  • Megapnosaurus rhodesiensis (a coelophysoid, formerly known as Syntarsus and named in 1969).
  • Vulcanodon karibaensis (a primitive, Early Jurassic sauropod named in 1972).
  • Mbiresaurus raathi (a basal, Late Triassic sauropodomorph named in 2022).
  • Musankwa sanyatiensis (a basal sauropodomorph named in 2024).

M. sanyatiensis is known from hind leg bones which represent a single, individual animal.  The right femur, tibia and astragalus were distinct from all other Late Triassic massopodan sauropodomorphs, so the researchers were confident that this was a new species.

One of the co-authors of the paper, Assistant Professor Kimberley Chapelle (Stony Brook University) commented:

“Despite the limited fossil material, these bones possess unique features that distinguish them from those of other dinosaurs living at the same time.”

Musankwa sanyatiensis fossil site location map.

Musankwa sanyatiensis fossil site location map. The geographic setting of the Mid-Zambezi Basin and Spurwing Island in northwest Zimbabwe.  Picture credit: Lara Sciscio.

Musankwa sanyatiensis Named After a Houseboat

This new dinosaur was named after the houseboat “Musankwa”.  The vessel was used by the research team for accommodation and as a makeshift laboratory.  It was supplied by David and Julie Glynn. The crew Godfrey Swalika, Simbarashe Mangoroma, Never Mapira and Coster Katupu provided essential logistical support to the field team.

The house-boat that housed the research team.

The houseboat “Musankwa”, the vessel that functioned as the home and mobile laboratory during two field expeditions to Lake Kariba in 2017–2018, which was made available through the generosity of David and Julie Glynn, and whose crew, Coster Katupu, Godfrey Swalika, Simbarashe Mangoroma, and Never Mapira, provided essential logistic support. Picture credit: Jonah Choiniere.

Phylogenetic analysis places Musankwa sanyatiensis as the earliest branching member of the Massopoda lineage of sauropodomorphs.  It is thought to have been bipedal and weighed around 390 kilograms.  Although no giant, Musankwa was one of the biggest dinosaurs known from the Late Triassic of southern Africa.

African Dinosaurs

Africa has a long history of dinosaur fossil discovery.  The first dinosaur from the Southern Hemisphere was found in South Africa just three years after Sir Richard Owen coined the term “Dinosauria”.  Remarkably, most dinosaur fossils from the continent have been found in just ten countries.  Most of these are from north Africa, from countries like Morocco and Egypt.  The dinosaurs of southern Africa are poorly known in comparison.

Professor Paul Barrett explained:

“Put simply, there have been fewer people looking for and unearthing dinosaurs in comparison with other regions of the world.”

Excavating the fossilised remains of Musankwa sanyatiensis.

The international research team composed of scientists from Zimbabwe, South Africa and the UK at the Musankwa sanyatiensis fossil locality on Spurwing Island, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. Picture credit: Lara Sciscio.

To read an article about the discovery of a giant sauropod from Angola: A New Giant Sauropod – Angolatitan.

Although there have been only a few dinosaurs named and described from southern Africa, those that have been found are historically and scientifically significant.  Some of the geologically oldest dinosaurs have been described, such as Nyasasaurus parringtoni from Tanzania and Mbiresaurus raathi from Zimbabwe.

An article from 2012 outlining the significance of Nyasasaurus parringtoni to dinosaur research: Putting Back the Date of the First Dinosaurs to Evolve.

The research team commented that the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic sediments of Zimbabwe are crucial for understanding the End-Triassic extinction.  This was a catastrophic event that dramatically reshaped Earth’s biodiversity around 200 million years ago. The geology provides insights into how different fossil-bearing sediments around the world correspond in age and help in piecing together the global picture of ancient life.

Musankwa sanyatiensis leg bones.

Musankwa sanyatiensis leg bones as they were discovered in the ground on Spurwing Island, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe.  Picture credit: Paul Barrett.

Musankwa sanyatiensis Highlighting the Untapped Potential of Southern Africa

The formal description of Musankwa sanyatiensis highlights the latent potential of southern Africa.  It is likely that many more significant fossil discoveries will be made.

Professor Paul Barrett commented:

“Over the last six years, many new fossil sites have been recorded in Zimbabwe, yielding a diverse array of prehistoric animals, including the first sub-Saharan mainland African phytosaurs [ancient crocodile-like reptiles], metoposaurid amphibians [giant armoured amphibians], lungfish, and other reptile remains.”

As more parts of southern Africa are explored for prehistoric animal fossils, there is hope that more important discoveries will be made.  These fossils will shed light on dinosaur evolution and the ecosystems they inhabited.

Dr Kimberley Chapelle added:

“Based on where it sits on the dinosaur family tree, Musankwa sanyatiensis is the first dinosaur of its kind from Zimbabwe.  It, therefore, highlights the potential of the region for further palaeontological discoveries.”

Musankwa sanyatiensis image.

Musankwa sanyatiensis fossil bones in situ, after mechanical preparation, and after CT scanning. Artist reconstruction of Musankwa sanyatiensis showing position of fossil bones. Picture credit: Barrett et al. 2024, Atashni Moopen.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release by the University of the Witwatersrand in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “A new Late Triassic sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Mid-Zambezi Basin, Zimbabwe” by Barrett, P.M., Chapelle, K.E.J., Sciscio, L., Broderick, T.J., Zondo, M., Munyikwa, D., and Choiniere, J.N.  Published in Acta Palaeontologica Polonica.

Visit the award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Toys.

3 06, 2024

New for 2024 PNSO Lufengosaurus Dinosaur Models

By |2024-06-04T13:43:00+01:00June 3rd, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models|0 Comments

The new for 2024 PNSO Lufengosaurus model is now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  It is great to see a Chinese manufacturer creating a replica of a Chinese sauropodomorph.  The dinosaur figure is entitled “Yiran the Lufengosaurus” and customers will receive an Everything Dinosaur Lufengosaurus fact sheet with purchases.

The new for 2024 PNSO Lufengosaurus model.

The new for 2024 PNSO Lufengosaurus dinosaur model. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The New PNSO Lufengosaurus Model

Lufengosaurus lived in China during the Early Jurassic. Numerous specimens have been discovered. Yang Zhongjian, known in western literature as Chung Chien Young, formally erected the genus in 1941. Two species are currently recognised, Lufengosaurus huenei and a larger species Lufengosaurus magnus. However, there is still debate amongst scientists as to the validity of L. magnus. Fossil specimens ascribed to this species could represent examples of extremely large and old Lufengosaurus huenei.

The PNSO Lufengosaurus is supplied with an A3-sized science-art poster.  In addition, the box includes a sixty-four-page colour booklet.

A trio of PNSO Lufengosaurus models.

Mike of Everything Dinosaur with three Lufengosaurus dinosaur models. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of PNSO models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Figures.

The Model Measurements

This new sauropodomorph figure measures twenty-five centimetres long. It stands approximately ten and a half centimetres high. PNSO have not declared a scale for their figure. However, based on a length of six metres for Lufengosaurus huenei, we estimate that this model is in 1:24 scale.

PNSO Lufengosaurus dinosaur model.

The new for 2024 PNSO Yiran the Lufengosaurus figure.

Mike from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that team members were busy contacting customers about this new model.  He explained that customers who requested a model being set aside for them were now being emailed.

PNSO and Everything Dinosaur are going to be announcing more new for 2024 prehistoric animal figures later this year.

To visit the award-winning and customer friendly Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Toys, Models and Figures.

2 06, 2024

A New Abelisaurid from Argentina – Koleken inakayali

By |2024-06-03T21:51:05+01:00June 2nd, 2024|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A new species of South American abelisaurid dinosaur has been named by scientists.  It lived in Patagonia around 69 million years ago (Maastrichtian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous.  Named Koleken inakayali it shared its estuarine environment with the much bigger, related abelisaurid Carnotaurus sastrei.  Its discovery and subsequent phylogenetic analysis provides a much needed context for understanding the rate of evolution within ceratosaurian theropods. Koleken helps to reinforce the belief that abelisaurids were the most successful group of large meat-eating dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Gondwana.

Koleken inakayali life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of the newly described abelisaurid dinosaur Koleken inakayali. Picture credit: Gabriel Diaz Yantén.

Koleken inakayali

Most of the fossil material comes from a substantial concretion collected from strata associated with the La Colonia Formation of Chubut Province, southern Argentina.  The concretion contained the posterior portion of the skeleton.  Fragmentary pieces of skull were also recovered.  Analysis of the bones suggests that the fossils represent a subadult animal, which was at least six years old when it died.  Although Koleken lived at the same time as Carnotaurus, the researchers concluded that the fossils represented a new, unique abelisaurid and not a specimen of an immature Carnotaurus.  Several unique characteristics of the bones were identified. Furthermore, Koleken inakayali lacked horns on its skull. Skull horns are a characteristic associated with Carnotaurus.

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies C. sastrei museum quality skull model.

Carnotaurus possessed a pair of horns on the top of its head. The newly described Koleken inakayali lacked horns.

The picture (above) shows a model of a Carnotaurus sastrei skull from Rebor.

To view the range of Rebor prehistoric animal figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

Roughened bone surface associated with the nasal area does suggest that this dinosaur may have had some sort of ridge structure running along its snout.

Koleken inakayali material excavated from La Colonia Formation (southern Argentina).

The fossil material was collected from deposits associated with the La Colonia Formation (Chubut Province, southern Argentina). Field team members prepare some of the fossil bones for removal.  Picture credit: María Agustinho.

Coming from Clay and Water

The genus name is derived from Kóleken, a name in the local Teushen language spoken by the native population of central Patagonia that means “coming from clay and water”.  The specimen was found in a sedimentary section dominated by claystone representing an estuarine environment. The trivial or species name honours Inakayal, one of the last chiefs of the native people from central Patagonia (the Tehuelches).  He is known for his resistance against Argentina’s 19th century military campaign, which resulted in the decimation and displacement of native communities from southern Argentina.

Lead author of the scientific paper Diego Pol (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Buenos Aires), commented:

“The new dinosaur is represented by a partial skeleton that includes several skull bones, an almost complete set of back bones, a complete hip, several tail bones and almost complete legs”.

The carcase of Koleken inakayali was probably transported by a river to an estuary, where it was buried shortly after its death.  The first fossils were discovered in 2015.  Although far from complete, this specimen will help palaeontologists assess how different parts of the skeleton of abelisaurids and their close relatives changed over time.

Co-author of the paper, Fernando Novas (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia), explained:

“We analysed the evolutionary relationships of abelisaurids and their closest relatives, the noasaurids, and found periods of time in which these groups changed rapidly and other periods in which their evolution remained almost at a standstill.”

Koleken inakayali fossils being cleaned.

Fossilised bones of Koleken being cleaned and prepared for further study. Picture credit: María Agustinho.

Abelisaurids Coexisted

The discovery of this new abelisaurid expands our knowledge about Late Cretaceous theropods of South America.  Koleken demonstrates that several species of abelisaurids coexisted in the same environments during the Maastrichtian faunal stage of the Cretaceous.  It also shows that abelisaurids were extremely diverse compared to other types of dinosaur.  Abelisaurids were probably the dominant carnivores.  The larger Carnotaurus sastrei was probably the apex predator, whilst Koleken inakayali at around four to five metres in length, probably filled a secondary predator niche.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur stated:

“We are learning more about ancient palaeoenvironments and the animals that existed within them.  Perhaps, the African plains today can provide an analogy.  You could consider Carnotaurus as fulfilling the role of a lion in this ecosystem, with Koleken filling a secondary predator niche such as a leopard.”

For Dominic

Team members from Everything Dinosaur met a remarkable young dinosaur fan called Dominic recently.  Dominic knew that a new species of meat-eating dinosaur had just been announced and was keen to learn more about Koleken.  We promised that we would dedicate our blog post about this new dinosaur to him.  Perhaps Dominic’s mum could ask him to draw Koleken inakayali.  We would very much like to see how Dominic interprets this new dinosaur discovery.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia in the compilation of this article.

For Dominic.

The scientific paper: “A new abelisaurid dinosaur from the end Cretaceous of Patagonia and evolutionary rates among the Ceratosauria” by Diego Pol, Mattia Antonio Baiano, David Černý, Fernando E. Novas, Ignacio A. Cerda and Michael Pittman published in cladistics.

1 06, 2024

Beautiful and Amazing Dinosaur Cakes

By |2024-06-04T06:26:50+01:00June 1st, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur team members are constantly amazed by how talented our customers and fans of dinosaurs can be.  For example, when attending the special screening of “WHY DINOSAURS?” in Sheffield, we spotted some incredible dinosaur cakes.  As part of the red carpet reception, a selection of dinosaur themed cakes had been prepared.  They were beautiful.  One cake depicted a scene from the movie “Jurassic Park”.  This was extremely appropriate, after all, we were attending a film premiere.

A Jurassic Park themed dinosaur cake.

A stunning scene from Jurassic Park which is entirely edible. At the screening of “WHY DINOSAURS?” in Sheffield Everything Dinosaur team members spotted some amazing dinosaur cakes. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Wonderful Dinosaur Cakes

Team members were able to talk to the talented couple who had created the wonderful dinosaur cakes.  It was explained that every part of the “Jurassic Park” cake was edible.  Even the soil and rocks could be eaten.  We praised the bakers and marvelled at the little cupcakes with a three-toed dinosaur footprint on top.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We were amazed at the detail that the bakers had managed to recreate. The cakes were beautiful, and it was a shame that they had to be cut up, but we can confirm they tasted as good as they looked.”

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website: Dinosaur Toys and Models.

Amazing dinosaur cakes.

For the special screening of the “WHY DINOSAURS?” documentary some superb dinosaur themed cakes had been made. All very tasty too. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Film Premiere

Everything Dinosaur has sponsored the UK screenings of a remarkable dinosaur documentary entitled “WHY DINOSAURS?”.  We were fortunate to be able to take a break from our busy schedule and attend the Sheffield screening.  It was fantastic to be able to meet so many talented and creative people.  We even got to meet the bakers and to hear how they had made these wonderful dinosaur cakes.

The Everything Dinosaur spokesperson added:

“Our congratulations to all involved in the film premiere. We appreciate how much work goes into an event such as this. It was a wonderful evening and Everything Dinosaur is proud to have been involved.”

31 05, 2024

Unique Insight into an Ancient Late Triassic Landscape

By |2024-05-30T10:24:58+01:00May 31st, 2024|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Researchers, including scientists from the University of Bristol have undertaken extensive fieldwork to determine the fauna of a Late Triassic landscape.  The excavation and study of hundreds of microvertebrate fossils from Lavernock Point (close to Cardiff and Penarth), has enabled the research team to construct a picture of the palaeoenvironment of South Wales around 200 million years ago.

A Terrestrial Environment Close to a Tropical Sea

Dinosaurs and other tetrapods lived on a tropical lowland beside the sea.  Dinosaur trackways are known from Barry and other sites close to Lavernock Point.  These trace fossils and the recent discovery of dinosaur bones has helped shed light on the history of dinosaurs in Wales.

Evidence of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic landscape of Wales.

Evidence of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic landscape of South Wales. A tridactyl (three-toed) footprint, one of many trackways and prints associated with the Dinosauria known from South Wales. Picture credit: Cindy Howells at the National Museum of Wales.

A Late Triassic Landscape

The cliffs at Lavernock Point contain shales and limestone deposits that were laid down in a warm, tropical sea.  Bonebeds are found at several levels of the strata.  These locations contain the remains of fish including sharks, marine reptiles and occasionally dinosaurs.

Whilst most of the dinosaurs were small, when compared to their Jurassic descendants, recent marine reptile discoveries indicate that there were giants in the ecosystem.  For example, fossilised jawbones indicate the presence of enormous ichthyosaurs, some of which may have been the size of the largest extant whales.

To read a recent blog post about giant Triassic ichthyosaurs: Ichthyotitan A Colossus of the Late Triassic.

Owain Evans, a former student at Bristol University led the research.

He explained:

“The bone bed paints the picture of a tropical archipelago, which was subjected to frequent storms, that washed material from around the surrounding area, both in land and out at sea, into a tidal zone. This means that from just one fossil horizon, we can reconstruct a complex ecological system, with a diverse array of marine reptiles like ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and placodonts in the water, and dinosaurs on land.”

A life reconstruction of a pair of Ichthyotitan severnensis.

A giant pair of Ichthyotitan severnensis. Giant marine reptiles swam in the shallow seas surround a tropical archipelago.  Picture credit: Gabriel Ugueto.

The researcher added:

“I had visited the coast at Penarth all my life, growing up in Cardiff, but never noticed the fossils. Then, the more I read, the more amazing it became. Local geologists had been collecting bones since the 1870s, and most of these are in the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff.”

Continuing the Research Begun in the 19th Century

Cindy Howells, the Curator of Palaeontology at the National Museum of Wales (Cardiff) highlighted the significance of the fossil discoveries at Lavernock Point.  The strata and the fossils contained therein have been studied since the 19th century.

Cindy commented:

“The presence of dinosaur fossils at the site ensure that it remains one of the most significant localities for palaeontology in Wales.”

Two Important Discoveries

Two significant discoveries were made by the research team during the fieldwork at Lavernock.  Firstly, an osteoderm from a placodont was discovered.  Placodonts were a type of marine reptile that thrived during the Triassic.  Secondly, a gular bone from the skull of a coelacanth was found.

Co-author of the scientific paper and the research supervisor Dr Chris Duffin explained:

“The remains of coelacanths and placodonts are relatively rare in the UK, which makes these finds even more remarkable. These two fossils alone help build a broader picture of what the Rhaetian in the UK would have looked like.”

Scale drawing of a Coelacanth. What is a Coelacanth?

A scale drawing of a Coelacanth.  The gular bone is located between the dentaries of primitive fish such as Coelacanths.  Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Dinosaurs of the Late Triassic Landscape

Professor Michael Benton from Bristol’s School of Earth Sciences, another co-author of the study added:

“The volume of dinosaur remains found at Lavernock is extremely exciting, and is a chance to study a complex, and often mysterious period in their evolutionary history. We have identified the remains of a large Plateosaurus like animal, along with several bones which likely belonged to a predatory theropod.”

This is exciting news, team members at Everything Dinosaur are looking forward to hearing more about these recent dinosaur fossil discoveries.  Perhaps, a new species of Welsh sauropodomorph will be described.

The majority of the study focuses on the abundant microfossils found in the cliffs.  These fossils include fish teeth, scales and bone fragments.  By studying thousands of fossils, the research team were able to identify the key species that lived in the tropical sea.  In addition, the team can estimate relative population densities.  This permits them to construct food webs and learn more about the fauna present in the Late Triassic landscape.  It is likely that more dinosaur fossil discoveries will be made in the future.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Bristol in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Microvertebrates from the basal Rhaetian Bone Bed (Late Triassic) at Lavernock, South Wales” by Owain Evans, Christopher J. Duffin, Claudia Hildebrandt, and Michael J. Benton published in the Proceedings of the Geologist’s Association.

The Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Toys.

30 05, 2024

New Wild Safari Prehistoric World Armoured Dinosaurs in Stock

By |2024-05-30T22:15:05+01:00May 30th, 2024|Everything Dinosaur Products, Wild Safari Prehistoric World|0 Comments

The new for 2024 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Kentrosaurus and Stegouros armoured dinosaur models have arrived.  These two armoured dinosaur figures are now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  It is wonderful to see new models representing diverse members of the Thyreophora introduced by Safari Ltd.  Kentrosaurus is from the Late Jurassic of Africa whilst Stegouros is known from the Late Cretaceous of South America.

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Kentrosaurus and Stegouros models.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Kentrosaurus and Stegouros dinosaur models. Two new armoured dinosaur figures. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Kentrosaurus

Safari Ltd have included a Kentrosaurus model in their product range in the past.  In 2010, a predominately green Kentrosaurus figure was added to the range.  In 2013, this small figure was retired.  The new for 2024 Kentrosaurus has a very different colour scheme.  It is a vivid electric blue with darker blue tones combined with warm amber colours.  The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Kentrosaurus model measures around twelve centimetres in length.

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Kentrosaurus

The very colourful Wild Safari Prehistoric World Kentrosaurus dinosaur model.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Stegouros Dinosaur Model

Stegouros (S. elengassen) was named in 2021 (Soto-Acuña et al). It was a very small ankylosaur, with an estimated body length of less than two metres.   A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur praised the design team at Safari Ltd for their excellent Stegouros figure.

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Stegouros.

The new for 2024 ankylosaur figure from Safari Ltd (Stegouros).

The spokesperson also praised Safari Ltd for recreating an accurate tail club on their Stegouros figure.

To view the Wild Safari Prehistoric World range of models: Wild Safari Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

The spokesperson added:

“We welcome these two, new armoured dinosaur figures.  Although both Stegouros and Kentrosaurus were members of the Thyreophora, they are both geographically, and temporally very distant to each other.  Both are great dinosaur models.”

Visit the Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Toys and Models.

29 05, 2024

A New PNSO Wuerhosaurus Model Coming into Stock

By |2024-06-08T15:52:26+01:00May 29th, 2024|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models, Dinosaur Fans, PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models|0 Comments

PNSO will be adding a replica of the armoured dinosaur Wuerhosaurus to their model range.  The PNSO Wuerhosaurus will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in a few weeks.  Team members have asked PNSO to make more models of dinosaurs from China.  Everything Dinosaur has received similar requests from model collectors and dinosaur fans.

PNSO Wuerhosaurus dinosaur model.

The new for 2024 PNSO armoured dinosaur model, Xilin the Wuerhosaurus. A fabulous replica of an armoured dinosaur from China.

The PNSO Wuerhosaurus Dinosaur Model

This armoured dinosaur was formally named and scientifically described in 1973 (Dong Zhiming). Wuerhosaurus is known from very fragmentary remains discovered in western China. The fossils come from the Lower Cretaceous Lianmuquin Formation. This formation is also known as the Lianmugin or the Lianmuxin Formation.  The design team at PNSO have created a wide-bodied stegosaur.  It is typical of Wuerhosaurus replicas in terms of its body shape.  However, the double row of plates running along the neck, back and down the tail are different.

Fossils remains ascribed to Wuerhosaurus homheni are in three museum collections. All the remains are fragmentary, and a complete reconstruction of this stegosaur is challenging. At first, the dorsal plates were thought to be much rounder and flatter than other stegosaurs. Subsequent research demonstrated that this was not the case. The plates appeared rounder due to breakage and the true shape of the plates is unknown.

Wuerhosaurus is one of the geologically youngest stegosaurians known.

The PNSO Wuerhosaurus model in lateral view.

The PNSO Wuerhosaurus model in lateral view.  Although the plates are much shorter than the dorsal plates of the better-known genus Stegosaurus, the design team at PNSO have tried to reflect current, scientific knowledge.

Model Measurements

The beautifully painted PNSO Wuerhosaurus figure measures 18.5 cm in length.  It is approximately 7 cm tall.  PNSO do not declare a scale for this new dinosaur figure.  The actual size of Wuerhosaurus homheni is not known.  It has been suggested that this dinosaur was around seven to eight metres in length.  Based on a maximum body length of eight metres, this new PNSO Wuerhosaurus model is in approximately 1:43 scale.

Xilin the Wuerhosaurus model measurements.

PNSO Xilin the Wuerhosaurus dinosaur model measures 18.5 cm long. The plates on the back give the model a height of approximately 7 cm.

To view the range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Dinosaur Models.

A spokesperson from the UK mail order company Everything Dinosaur praised PNSO for bringing out a Wuerhosaurus figure.

The spokesperson added:

“It is wonderful to see more armoured dinosaur figures being introduced.  We are delighted that a replica of a Chinese stegosaur is being added to the PNSO range.”

The new for 2024 PNSO Wuerhosaurus dinosaur model will be stock at Everything Dinosaur shortly.

To view the range of dinosaur and prehistoric animal figures in stock, visit the company’s website: Dinosaur Models, Replicas and Prehistoric Animal Toys.

28 05, 2024

Pterosaur Bone and Amazing Adaptations for Powered Flight

By |2024-06-16T12:39:17+01:00May 28th, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Pterosaur bone fossils show some remarkable adaptations for powered flight. The bones were light, air-filled and often they had extremely thin walls.  The Pterosauria comprises the first vertebrates to have evolved powered flight. The wings of pterosaurs were formed by a membrane of skin and tissue that stretched from the ankles to an enormous fourth digit on the hand.  Their evolutionary origins remain unclear.  Some palaeontologists postulate that the first flying pterosaurs evolved during the Middle Triassic.

To read an article about the possible ancestry of the Pterosauria: Unravelling the Ancestry of the Pterosaurs.

pterosaur bone exhibit.

The shape of the pterosaur wing and evidence of wing membranes. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The image (above) shows the shape and the anatomy of the pterosaur wing.  This is a photograph of an exhibit on display at the Manchester Museum of Natural History.  We suspect that this is a cast.  The pterosaur genus represented by this exhibit is probably Rhamphorhynchus.  The thin and delicate wing bones can be clearly observed.

Rhamphorhynchus model

Wild Safari Dinos Rhamphorhynchus figure.

The picture (above) shows a Rhamphorhynchus pterosaur model.  It is a long-tailed flying reptile. The figure is from the Wild Safari Prehistoric World model range.

To view the Wild Safari Prehistoric World range: Safari Ltd Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

Pterosaur Bone Structure

Pterosaur bones were lightweight but strong. Their skeletons show a number of adaptations for powered flight. For example, they possessed large, keeled breastbones that anchored powerful flight muscles. The bones were hollow and air-filled similar to those of birds. The bone walls were extremely thin.

Pterosaur bone.

A close-up view of the thin-walled and hollow pterosaur bone model on display at the Frankfurt Museum of Natural History. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture (above) shows the internal structure of a pterosaur bone.  It is probably a cast.  The bone contains struts that help to strengthen it, but most of the internal space would have been filled with air.  The walls of the bone are extremely thin.  The large notch on the underside would have been for muscle attachment.  Pterosaur bones provide a proportionately higher muscle attachment surface area compared to most other reptiles.

Quetzalcoatlus exhibit.

An enormous Quetzalcoatlus fossil cast on display. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Visit the award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur and Pterosaur Models and Toys.

27 05, 2024

The Remarkable Beauty of Ammonite Models

By |2024-06-13T18:48:53+01:00May 27th, 2024|Bullyland Prehistoric Animal Figures, CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular and CollectA Prehistoric Life Models, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Ammonite models provide fossil hunters with an opportunity to illustrate their ammonite fossil collections with a replica of the actual animal.  There have been several ammonite figures introduced in recent years.  They have certainly captured the imagination of fossil enthusiasts and model collectors.  Professional palaeontologists have found them useful too.  At Everything Dinosaur, we also supply ammonite models to schools, universities, museums and to people involved in science communication.

The Bullyland ammonite model next to a polished section of an ammonite fossil.

The Bullyland ammonite model is often used in museum displays to depict the living animal next to fossil material. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture (above) shows an ammonite model next to a polished ammonite fossil.  The ammonite replica is from the Bullyland range of prehistoric animal figures.  It was one of the first replicas of an ammonite to be made by a mainstream model manufacturer.

To view the Bullyland range: Bullyland Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

Describing Ammonite Models

Ammonite models are detailed replicas that provide an example of a typical ammonite.  There are hundreds of ammonite genera.  It would not be possible to create a figure to represent every single species.  However, the replicas that do exist provide a helpful and informative representation of these extinct cephalopods.  The models are meticulously designed to replicate the intricate details of the original fossils.

Most ammonite genera had planispiral shells. However, throughout the course of their long evolutionary history these remarkable cephalopods evolved a huge variety of shell forms.

The CollectA Age of Dinosaurs range contains a replica of an ammonite with a planispiral shell. The genus is Pleuroceras.  In addition, CollectA have included an example of a heteromorphic ammonite in their model range. The genus is Pravitoceras.

CollectA Pleuroceras ammonite model.

CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Popular Size Pleuroceras ammonite model.

The CollectA Pravitoceras figure is extremely detailed, and it depicts an ammonite with an irregularly coiled shell.

CollectA Pravitoceras model.

The colourful heteromorph ammonoid model – CollectA Pravitoceras.

To view the CollectA Age of Dinosaurs model series: CollectA Age of Dinosaurs Models.

The Significance of Ammonite Replicas

Ammonite figures have gained popularity amongst fossil collectors.  The models are placed next to fossils to provide a visual clue to what these marine creatures actually looked like.  Ammonite models are used in museum exhibits too.  These figures provide a tangible representation of an extinct animal.  Furthermore, these figures can be used to help with scientific communication and outreach work.  Their robust form enables them to stand up to lots of handling from inquisitive children.  These replicas often evoke a sense of awe and wonder.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that the company supplied a large number of these figures.

The spokesperson added|:

“Ammonite models provide an affordable way to demonstrate what these long extinct creatures looked like.  The vast majority of fossils we have represent just the shell.  The creature lived in the last segment of the shell and the models help to bring ammonites back to life.”

Visit the award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Models and Toys.

26 05, 2024

Comparing Brands Prehistoric Animal Models – Some Helpful Advice (Part 2)

By |2024-06-09T10:07:54+01:00May 26th, 2024|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Earlier this month, we looked at prehistoric animal model brands that are generally classified as toys. We looked at the merits of brands such as Schleich, Wild Safari Prehistoric World and Mojo Fun. In the second and concluding part of this short series, Everything Dinosaur examines some of the options available for collectors of prehistoric animal figures.   The fans of prehistoric animals that are looking for museum-quality replicas. Let’s take a look at prehistoric animal models that are likely to appeal to collectors.

To read the first blog post in this series, looking at prehistoric animal toys: Comparing Prehistoric Animal Model Brands (Part 1) – Toys.

There are no hard and fast rules as to which brands of prehistoric animal models are regarded as toys and which ones are collectables.  For example, the Natural History Museum range of figures are highly collectable but have great play value too.

Natural History Museum dinosaur models.

The rare Megalosaurus along with the Natural History Museum Baryonyx and Triceratops figures. These figures, part of the Natural History Museum range, are now all retired and out of production. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Rebor Replicas and Figures

Rebor produces an excellent range of highly detailed, hand-painted, and often articulated prehistoric animal models. Their extensive range includes dinosaurs, prehistoric mammals and extant creatures. Rebor figures include both scale and not-to-scale models. The company strives to produce accurate, museum-quality models as well as more unusual replicas such as the Titanoboa maquette.

Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Brian Diccus prehistoric animal model.

The assembled Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Brian Diccus prehistoric animal model. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the Rebor range: Rebor Models and Figures.

Haolonggood Prehistoric Animal Models

The Haolonggood range of prehistoric animal figures is a recent addition to Everything Dinosaur’s portfolio.  This Chinese company has ambitions.  They intend to introduce more than a dozen new models in 2024.  The majority of the figures are dinosaurs, although the company has introduced an extremely good replica of Otodus megalodon.  Most of the dinosaur figures are in 1:35 scale and two colour variants are normally offered per genus.

This range is popular amongst dinosaur model collectors.

Haolonggood dinosaur models.

New for 2024 Haolonggood dinosaur models. Tlatolophus galorum and the horned dinosaurs Sinoceratops and Kosmoceratops. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the Haolonggood range: Haolonggood Dinosaurs.

Beasts of the Mesozoic

The Beasts of the Mesozoic range has a great reputation for the quality of design.  This is a range of articulated prehistoric animal figures.  The first series to be introduced were the “raptors”. This was a range of mostly dromaeosaurids.  A ceratopsian series followed and recently a selection of tyrannosaur figures has been launched.  The figures are colourful, with some of the models having more unusual colour schemes such as blue or purple.  They are aimed at adult collectors.  This range has an age restriction as the models are for display and not for robust play.

There are plans to add prehistoric mammals and some fantasy figures to the portfolio.

To view the range of Beasts of the Mesozoic models in stock: Beasts of the Mesozoic Action Figures.

Unpacking Beasts of the Mesozoic models.

The latest Beasts of the Mesozoic delivery consisted of tyrannosaurs, ceratopsians and raptors. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Collecting Prehistoric Animal Figures Influenced by Dinosaur Films

Dinosaur movies such as “King Kong” and the “Jurassic Park/Jurassic World” franchises have influenced model making.  Lots of manufacturers offer prehistoric animal collectables that reflect prehistoric animals from the big screen.  For instance, ITOY Studio offers a small range of figures influenced by films such as “Jurassic Park”.

ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus dinosaur model with articulated jaw.

The ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus dinosaur model has an articulated jaw. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the ITOY Studio range: ITOY Studio Dinosaurs.

In addition, many collectors enjoy collecting the Nanmu Studio models.  These models are quite large and beautifully painted.  Many of the Nanmu Studio figures include bases which makes them ideal for display.

The Nanmu Studio Mosasaurus models

The Nanmu Studio Mosasaurus models. The “Leviathan” (left) and the “Pit Lord” figure (right). Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

PNSO Prehistoric Animal Models

PNSO have a good reputation for producing scientifically accurate prehistoric animal models.  The company offers 1:35 scale sci-art models as well as a wide range of mid-size models.  The range has grown and Everything Dinosaur has been involved with this manufacturer for more than a decade.  PNSO models are extremely popular amongst collectors.

The PNSO range: PNSO Dinosaurs.

PNSO Tristan the Gorgosaurus

The recently introduced PNSO Tristan the Gorgosaurus dinosaur model in lateral view. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur praised Eofauna Scientific Research for their range of scale prehistoric animal figures.  In addition, the spokesperson mentioned the small, yet detailed and highly collectable Wild Past replicas.

Wild Past Tethyshadros packaging

The front of the Wild Past Tethyshadros box. Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur.

Picture credit: Everything Dinosaur

Collectable Prehistoric Animal Figures

In summary, discerning collectors have a wide variety of prehistoric animal brands to choose from. If you are a fan of dinosaur movies, then ITOY Studio or Nanmu Studio are worth considering. However, if you want scientific accuracy then Haolonggood or PNSO might appeal. If you are looking for more than iconic dinosaurs such as Tyrannosaurus rex, then Rebor, with its more unusual figures is highly recommended.

Whether you are a budding palaeontologist or an avid model enthusiast, the wide-ranging prehistoric animal model collection at Everything Dinosaur has something to captivate any collector.

Visit the award-winning Everything Dinosaur website: Dinosaur Models and Prehistoric Animal Figures.

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